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JPRS-CEA-84-056 
12 July 1984 


China Report 

ECONOMIC AFFAIRS 


1 






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JPRS-CEA-84-056 


12 July 1984 


CHINA REPORT 

Economic Affairs 


Contents 

PEOPLE’S REPTJBLIC OF CHINA 

PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS 

JINGJI RIBAD on Northeast Economic Situation 

(Liu Hanbing; JINGJI RIBAO, 11 Jun 84). 1 

Ismail Amat on Foreign Investment, Reforms 

(Xinjiang Regional Service, 19 Jun 84).. 4 

Hunan’s Liu Zheng Outlines Provincial Tasks 

(Hunan Provincial Service, 23 Jun 84). 6 

Briefs 

Chen Guodong Visits Factories 8 

ECONOMIC PLANNING 

Shantou Holds Forum on Economic Development 

(Du Songnian, et al.; NANFANG RIBAO, 14 Jun 84)... 9 

AGGREGATE ECONOMIC DATA 

Yunnan’s 1983 Economic, Social Statistics 

(YUNNAN RIBAO, 18 May 84)... 11 

May Figures for Industrial Production, Transport 

(JINGJI RIBAO, 16 Jun 84) ..... 25 

Briefs 

Jilin County-City Production Achievements 28 

- a - (III - CC - 83] 









ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT 


Shanxi: Province Signs Economic Cooperative Agreements 


(SHANXI RIB AO, 15 May 84)... 29 

Hunan Report on Reforming Planning Management 

(Hunan Provincial Service, 24 Jun 84).... 31 

SHIJIE JINGJI DAOBAO Interviews Shanghai Mayor 

(SHIJIE JINGJI DAOBAO, 4 Jun 84). 32 

Congress Deputies Discuss Liu Zheng Report 

(Hunan Provincial Service, 22 Jun 84). 38 

Briefs 

Hefei Economic, Cultural Company 40 


INDUSTRY 

Briefs 

Quangdong May Industrial Production 41 

Guizhou May Industrial Production 41 


CONSTRUCTION 

Briefs 

Yingkou Harbor, Liaoning 


42 


DOMESTIC TRADE 
Briefs 

Guangzhou Industrial Products Exhibition 43 

FOREIGN TRADE AND INVESTMENT 
Briefs 

International Machinery Exhibition Opens 44 


TRANSPORTATION 


Work To Begin on Section of Beijlng-Hangzhou Canal 

(Cai Mingde; XINHUA RIBAO, 14 Mar 84). 45 

China's Shipping, Container Transport Make Rapid Gains 

(JINGJI RIBAO, 20 Feb 84). 50 


Port Activity, by Wang Ruochu 
Containerized Freight, by Tang Jle 



- b - 



i 








Briefs 


Tianjin Tourist Air Line 
Sanya-Hong Kong Sea Liner 
Zhejiang Railway 
Sanya Port Opens 2 July 
Ships at Xiamen Harbor 
Beijing-Qinhuangdao Railway 


53 

53 

53 

53 

54 
54 


c 



PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS 


JINGJI RIBAO ON NORTHEAST ECONOMIC SITUATION 
HK250159 Beijing JINGJI RIBAO in Chinese 11 Jun 84 p 2 

[Article by Liu Hanbing [0491 352 4426]: "A Brief Account of the Economy of 
the Northeast”] 

[Text] China's northeastern region occupies a very important position in the 
country's four modernizations drive both economically and strategically. The 
northeast is not only China's famous base for iron and steel, energy, machine- 
building, forestry, and grain, but also an important base for developing 
China's foreign economic relations and trade, with lalian Port as the center 
of the northeast's foreign trade. 

Abundant Natural Resources 

The vast territory of the northeast is developed in forestry and rich in 
mineral resources. To the northwest of this region lies the Da Hinggan Ling, 
to its north the Xiao Hinggan Ling, and to its east the Changbai Shan, extend¬ 
ing a thousand li, and its branch ranges the Qian Shan, the Wanda Shan, and 
the Zhangguangcai Ling, where forestry and mineral resources, local products, 
mountain products, and wild animal and plant resources are abundant. The 
northeast is also very rich in iron ore, petroleum, oil shale, coal, and 
other mineral resources such as talcum, fluorite [fu shi 8636 4258] granite, 
diamond, jade alunite, fluorite [ylng shi 5821 4258], kyanite, silllmanite, 
zeyssatite, magnesite, phosphorus-flake [lin plan 4340 3651] graphite, 
molybdenum, boron, nickel, copper, lead, zinc, asbestos, gypsum, bentonite,^ 
glass sand, and refractory materials. Placer gold can be found everywhere in 
the northeast, and particularly the placer gold in Heilongjiang Province ranks 
first in the country. The output, quality, and export volume of Liaoning^ 
Province's talcum, boron ore, and magnesite occupy an important position in 
the country. 

Abundant Marine Resources 

Facing the Huang Hai and the Bo Hai, Liaoning Province has 2,178 kilometers 
of coastline and the area of its maritime space comprises more than one-third 
of the total area of the province, which abounds in such special valuable 
marine products as prawn, abalone, sichopus japonicus, jellyfish, and fan 
shell. All this provides grounds for the province to develop the marine 


1 



fishing industry and marine fish farming. With the development of science and 
technology, in the future the province can also develop new rising Industries 
such as the marine chemical Industry, undersea mining, and sea energy exploi¬ 
tation, Exploiting marine resources and developing the marine economy is a 
new area that deserves particular attention in developing the economy of the 
northeast. 

Agriculture Is Flourishing More and More 

With rivers flowing eastward and southward, the famous Great Northeast Plain 
has a vast expanse of fertile land and a moist climate where agriculture is 
developed. The area of cultivated land of the whole region totals about 290 
million mu and that of its grassland to 480 million mu. The Hulun Buir and 
Horqin grasslands lying to the east of Nei Monggol are China's famous natural 
pasturelands. In recent years with the introduction of various forms of the 
output-related contract responsibility system, there have been big increases 
in the output of grain and various industrial crops and in the artificial 
breeding trade. An unprecedentedly bmper harvest was reaped last year in 
grain. Grain output in Heilongjiang Province reached 30 billion jin; in 
Jilin Province 29.56 billion jin; and in Liaoning Province topped 27 billion 
jin, or an increase of 20 percent over the previous year. Good harvests were 
also reaped last year in the famous northeast soybeans, corn, flax, and sugar 
beets. With the development of the artificial and household breeding indus¬ 
tries, there were also increases in the production of the world renowned 
three northeast treaures—ginseng, marten fur, and furry antlers—and in 
sideline production such as chickens, ducks, geese, and rabbits. All this 
has provided the foreign trade departments of the northeast with an ample 
supply of goods for export. 

A Solid Industrial Base 

Since the founding of the PRC, the northeast has always been the base for 
China's heavy industry. In the last few years light and textile industries 
have developed rapidly. In the whole region there are 41,340 enterprises, 
and the original value of its fixed assets in 1982 was equal to one-fifth the 
fixed assets of the industrial enterprises throughout the country. The total 
Industrial output value of the three provinces in 1982 amounted to 88.86 
billion yuan, comprising 16 percent of the total national industrial output 
value. In the total national major industrial products the proportion of 
major industrial products of the three provinces was: crude oil was 60 
percent; motor vehicles was 35 percent; metallurgical equipment was 32.7 
percent; chemical industrial equipment was 30.5 percent; pig iron was 28.4 
percent; and steel and rolled steel were about 25 percent respectively. 

Transport and Communications Are Developed 

In the northeast, railways and highways radiate in all directions, civil 
aviation lines link all parts of the region, and there are favorable condi¬ 
tions in sea transportation. The mileage of railways of the three provinces 
is 14,000 kilometers, comprising 28.3 percent of the total national railway 
traffic mileage, and that of highways is 10,000 kilometers or more. In the 


2 



three provinces there ate 10 airports for civilian use, and there are 11 
rivers that are already open for navigation, totalling 4,900 kilometers. 

Along the northeast coast there are numerous ports. The wide and deep 
Dalian Port is an ice free and silt free fine natural port, which is open 
for navigation during all seasons. At present the handling capacity of Dalian 
Port has reached approximately 35 million tons and its deepwater oil wharf 
can berth tankers of the 100,000-ton class. The construction of Bayuquan 
Port in Yingkou and Dadong Port in Dandong is being stepped up. 

Foreign Trade Is Flourishing 

Over the last four years outstanding achievements have been scored in the 
construction of commodity production bases in the northeast. The three pro¬ 
vinces have turned Dalian City, Yingkou City, Suihua Prefecture, Dandong City, 
and Jilin City into five comprehensive production bases for export commodities 
one after another. The volume of export commodities provided by the various 
bases of Liaoning Province in 1982 totalled 1.17 billion yuan, comprising 39 
percent of the total volume of export commodities purchased by the provincial 
foreign trade departments, which amounted to 3.1 billion yuan. The total 
export volume of the three provinces in 1982 reached U.S. $4,595 billion, and 
on the basis of stressing the attainment of better economic results, their 
export volume in 1983 totalled about U.S.$4.3 billion. The export trade of 
the northeast holds an important position in the country, but viewed from 
the various favorable economic factors and the huge potential in development 
of the northeast, particularly under the new drive to further implement the 
policy of opening to the outside world and rejuvenating the domestic economy, 
it is necessary to bring about a more vigorous upswing in the future economic 
relations and trade of the northeast. 


CSO: 4006/604 



PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS 


ISMAIL AMAT ON FOREIGN INVESTMENT, REFORMS 

HK200243 Urumqi Xinjiang Regional Service in Mandarin 1300 GMT 19 Jun 84 

[Excerpts] In his government work report to the second session of the Sixth 
Regional People's Congress, Regional Government Chairman Ismail Amat pointed 
out: We must be bold in using foreign investment and give free rein to the 
importation of advanced technology and equipment. 

He said; We must continue to implement the principle of opening up to the 
world and enlivening the domestic economy. We must get rid of the small 
peasant economic viewpoint of closing the country to international inter¬ 
course and insisting on self-sufficiency, base our thinking on the overall 
situation of the four modernizations drive, and speed up the pace of using 
foreign investment and importing advanced technology and equipment, so as to 
promote technological progress. 

The region is relaxing jurisdiction regarding examination and approval of 
technological transformation and importation. The departments in charge or 
the prefectures and cities may examine and approve projects that accord with 
state demands, involve the use of a unit's own capital for technological 
transformation, and cost less than 1 million yuan in investment. Enter¬ 
prises themselves can decide on projects costing less than 500,000 yuan. 

The technological transformation capital managed by the regional authorities 
in a unified way, including public funds and loans, can be appropriately 
apportioned to the departments and bureaus in charge for distribution ac¬ 
cording to trades and sectors. The departments and bureaus in charge and 
the prefectures and cities can examine and approve the importation of advanced 
technology or equipment costing less than 1 million yuan, involving the use of 
a unit's own capital. The regional authorities will examine and approve such 
items costing between 1 million and 10 million yuan. 

Ismail Amat said: We must organize pilot projects in labor wage reform, and 
closely link workers' wages [words indistinct] egalitarian in distribution 
and do away with the defect of having everybody eat out of the same big pot. 

Ismail Amat said: We must actively carry out reforms in the education, 
science, and culture systems. He said: We must reform the management setup 
of institutes of higher education and expand their operational powers. Under 
the premise of fulfilling the enrollment task set by the state, these 


4 



institutes have the right to tap potentials, as commissioned by other depart¬ 
ments or localities and collectives, train [word indistinct] students and 
postgraduates. They can also team up with factories, mines, and other enter¬ 
prises in running faculties and schools. 

We must seriously implement the policies on intellectuals, gradually Improve 
their living and working conditions, and bring their role in the four modern¬ 
izations into full play. We should permit rational movement of talented 
people. Specially favorable pay and conditions will be provided for science 
and technology personnel coming to Xinjiang from the interior and going 
from the towns to the grassroots. 


CSO: 4006/604 


5 




PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS 



HUNAN’S LIU ZHENG OUTLINES PROVINCIAL TASKS 

HK240705 Changsha Hunan Provincial Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 23 Jun 84 

lExcerptsJ In his government work report to the second session of the Sixth 
Hunan Provincial People’s Congress, Governor Liu Zheng pointed out: Through 
carrying out reforms, we should establish an open and multichannel circula¬ 
tion setup with few links. All towns should open their gates and practice 
the guiding principle of opening up, drawing in, and providing services. 

They should develop agricultural trading markets and also organize whole¬ 
sale markets, and create convenient conditions for peasants, rural commerce, 
and township enterprises to enter the towns to set up points and promote 
commodity production and sales. We must vigorously develop rural households 
specializing in transport, and organize rural specialized households and 
grassroots procurement units to establish ties with urban shops, so as to 
directly supply meat, fish, poultry, eggs, fruit, vegetables, and other fresh 
produce. 

Specialized foreign trade companies should take the initiative to organize 
various kinds of joint operations with factories, mines, and other enter¬ 
prises in the prefectures, cities, and counties that produce export products. 
They can also organize cooperation with industrial enterprises in running 
joint ventures, compensation trade, and so on. Foreign trade departments 
should also actively sign contracts with rural specialized households and com¬ 
bines and organize them and support them in developing export production. 

Governor Liu Zheng said: In enlivening external economic and trade work, 
we must bring into full play the role of the united front and overseas Chinese 
affairs departments, the industry and commerce federations, and the civil 
aviation, trust, and trade promotion departments and the various social 
bodies, and organize liaison with the outside world through various channels. 

Governor Liu Zheng stressed: We must reform the setup of science, technol¬ 
ogy, and education. Science and technology must be geared to economic con¬ 
struction. At present reforms in the education setup should focus on expand¬ 
ing the schools’ powers in operations, personnel, use of funds, and examina¬ 
tion and approval of capital construction. In accordance with the require¬ 
ments of the four modernizations, we should actively readjust the composition 
and the specialities of the institutes of higher education, and set up in¬ 
stitutes teaching new specialized subjects. 


6 


He stressed: We must resolutely implement the PRC law on autonomy for 
nationality regions, and expand the decisionmaking powers of minority- 
nationality areas. 

In the final part of his report. Governor Liu Zheng stressed that all 
levels and departments must constantly grasp economic work as the central - 
task, focus on reforms, strengthen leadership, ensure implementation of 
measures, and strive for new progress in the province's national economy 
and all other work. All levels and departments must extricate themselves 
from the bindings of leftist ideology and all kinds of old conventions, take 
the lead in reforms with a firm and clear-cut stand, and persist in and sup¬ 
port reforms. 


CSO; 4006/604 



PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS 


BRIEFS 

CHEN GUODONG VISITS FACTORIES—Leading comrades of the Shanghai Municipal 
CPC Committee and the municipal government Chen Guodong, Hu Lijiao, Wang 
Daohan, Huang Ju, and Li Zhaoji, and responsible comrades of departments 
concerned visited the Shanghai No 2 Radio Plant on the morning of 8 June to 
view production of 2L-140 type radios and recorders at its No 6 Workshop.* 

They asked questions about the quality and sales of the products, and heard 
a report by (Zhu Mlngjing), secretary of the plant party committee, on reform 
being carried out at selected units. In the past few days, the leading com¬ 
rades of the municipal party committee and the municipal government have also 
visited the Shanghai Toothpaste Plant, the Shanghai No 17 Cotton Mill, and 
the Shanghai Washing Machines General Plant to hear reports on reform, arid 
opinions concerning relaxation of measures. They explicitly expressed sup¬ 
port for reformative measures and practices conforming with the guidelines 
of the State Council provincial regulations, and promised that answers would 
be made after study, to difficult problems raised by some factories. The 
municipal party committee and the municipal government have paid keen atten¬ 
tion to reform being carried out by collectively-owned enterprises. On the 
basis of study and Investigation, departments concerned of the municipal 
government have already mapped out several measures to give expanded decisiori- 
making powers to the enterprises. [Text] [OW120431 Shanghai City Service in 
Mandarin 2300 GMT 8 Jun 84] 


CSO: 4006/604 




8 



ECONOMIC PLANNING 


SHANTOU HOLDS FORUM ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 

HK21I524 Guangzhou NANFANG RIBAO in Chinese 14 Jun 84 p I 

[Report by Du Songnian [2629 2646 1628J, Chen Guorong [7115 0948 2837J and 
Zhang Geping [1728 2047 1627J: "Build Shantou Into an Open Economic Zone 
With the Distinctive Characteristics of the Hometown of Many Overseas 
Chinese"] 

[Text] "Grasp open policies, promote development, and build Shantou into a 
multifier and multifunctional open economic zone with the distinctive charact¬ 
eristics of the hometown of many Overseas Chinese in which industry, agri¬ 
culture, and commerce develop simultaneously, and domestic and foreign trades 
are combined." This is an agreed upon view raised by some specialists and 
scholars at a forum on the economic development strategy of Shantou City. 

The forum was held by the Shantou City CPC Committee and government in late 
May in Shantou. A total of 240 people attended the forum, including some 60 
specialists and scholars from Beijing, Shanghai, the northeastern area of 
China, and Guangzhou, along with party and government leaders and scientific 
and technological personnel from Shantou City. 

Famous economists Xu Dixin and Qian Jiaju wrote a few words especially for the 
forum. Tong Dalin, deputy director of the state Economic System Refom Commit¬ 
tee; Jiang Qnwei, director of the Industrial Economy Research Institute of the 
Chinese Social Sciences Academy; Zhu Baoyi, vice chairman of the World Econ¬ 
omic Society of China; and Lu Ping, deputy chief editor of SHIJIE jpGJI 
DAOBAO, came to Shantou especially to attend the forum. Ren Zhongyi, first 
secretary of the provincial CPC Committee, and Liang Lingguang, Guangdong 
Provincial governor, sent a cable and wrote a letter to the forum, holding 
great expectations from the forum and wishing it every success. 

During the forum, the participants, by integrating principles and concrete 
matters, reviewed Shantou's history analyzed Shantou s practical situation, 
and discussed Shantou's economic development strategy mainly from the macro¬ 
scopic viewpoint. They unanimously held that the most prominent feature of 
Shantou is its large population and limited land areas, and that its greatest 
feature lies in the large number of Overseas Chinese whose hometown is Shantou. 
Due to the "leftist" influence over a long period of time, it was impossible 
to give full play to this feature. Furthermore, many problems still exist. 


9 



such as shortage of funds and energy and backward transportation means. But 
provided we resolutely implement the policy of the central leadership of 
further opening to the outside world, adopting correct development strate¬ 
gies, and scope to the feature, it is possible to resolve problems and over¬ 
come difficulties. 

On Shantou's future economic development strategy, the participants raised 
some identical views: 1) It is necessary to establish a strategic idea of 
"grasping open policies and promoting development," along with the strategic 
principle of "Importing and absorbing things and people from other areas and 
abroad to Shantou and expanding our business to other areas and abroad." 
Shantou's economic development cannot be limited to the transformation of 
traditional industries, technologies, and products, but must, by taking ad¬ 
vantage of new technological revolution and the favorable conditions provided 
by special economic zones, actively import, apply, digest, and develop ad¬ 
vanced technologies, and must develop knowledge-intensive and technology¬ 
intensive industries. Meanwhile, it is also necessary to make full use of 
abundant human resources and continue to develop labor-intensive industries 
so as to build a multitier technological structure with advanced technologies 
as its center, supplemented by middle-level and elementary knowledge; 2) It 
is necessary to build Shantou into an open economic zone with the distinctive 
characteristics of the hometown of many Overseas Chinese. Shantou administers 
two cities and eight counties, with a population of some 8.95 million. There 
are some 6 million Overseas Chinese (including foreign citizens of Chinese 
descent) and 1 million Hong Kong and Macao compatriots whose hometown is 
Shantou. Whether viewed historically or from the practical situation, in 
developing Shantou's economy it is necessary to give full play to the super¬ 
iority of the large number of Overseas Chinese. It is, therefore, necessary 
to give more preferential treatment and convenience to Overseas Chinese in 
making investments, to vigorously absorb the funds of Overseas Chinese and 
foreign capital and import technologies, and to take a new road in the con¬ 
struction of special economic zones. 3) It is necessary to firmly grasp two 
important strategic tasks, namely, energy and transportation, and science, 
technology, and education, and vigorously exploit human resource. It is 
necessary to employ specialists from other areas, including overseas special¬ 
ists, to Shantou to give lectures, act as advisors, and provide consultation 
services for technological information. Meanwhile, it is necessary to vigor¬ 
ously support the development of Shantou University, and vigorously support 
secondary and primary school education and secondary vocational education so as 
to train a great number of professionals urgently needed in various trades. 

4) It is necessary to vigorously develop economic links with eastern Guang¬ 
dong, western Fujian, and southern Jiangxi and gradually establish the 
Fujian-Guangdong-Jiangxi border economic zone with Shantou as its center. 

At the forum, Tong Dalin, deputy director of the state Economic Systen Reform 
Committee, and Jiang Yiwei, director of the Industrial Economy Research In¬ 
stitute of the Chinese Social Sciences Academy, stressed in their speeches 
that Shantou must carry out reforms boldly and give full play to the super¬ 
iority of a great number of Overseas Chinese whose hometown is Shantou. While 
studying economic development strategy, Shantou must not neglect the research 
of social strategies that economic and social construction can develop in a 
coordinated manner. 

CSO: 4006/604 


10 


AGGREGATE ECONOMIC DATA 


YUNNAN’S 1983 ECONOMIC, SOCIAL STATISTICS 

HK221421 Kunming YUNNAN RIBAO in Chinese 18 May 84 p 3 

["Communique Issued by the Yunnan Provincial Statistics Bureau on 2 May on the 
Implementation of the 1983 Economic and Social Development Plan"] 

[Text] The year 1983 was the first year for implementing the program adopted 
by the 12th CPC National Congress. Under the leadership of the provincial CPC 
committee and the provincial people’s government, the people in our province 
paid close attention to economic construction, continued to implement the 
principle of readjustment, restructuring, consolidating, and improving, and 
scored encouraging successes in economic and social development. We have 
reaped bumper harvests in 4 consecutive years in spite of frequent natural 
calamities. In spite of the shortage of power supply, we have hit an all- 
time high in industrial production 5 consecutive years and the construction of 
the key projects has been stepped up. Last year, the gross value of social 
production was 20.47 billion yuan (Note: the gross value of social production 
is the sum total of the output value of Industrial and agricultural production, 
building construction, communications, transportation, and commerce, including 
the supply and marketing of goods and materials and catering industry. The 
national income is the sum total of the net output value of the above five 
branches of material production. In order to make this communique and the com¬ 
munique’ released by the State Statistical Bureau consistent with each other, 
the gross value of social production, gross value of industrial production, 
gross value of agricultural production, and national income are reckoned on 
the basis of the prices in that year, [word indistinct] rates compared with 
those in the previous year and the percentage of the plans accomplished, which 
are contained in this communique, are reckoned on the basis of the comparable 
prices), an Increase of 8.6 percent over the previous year. The gross industr¬ 
ial and agricultural output value was 16.068 billion yuan, which means 105.7 
percent of the plan was accomplished, an increase of 9.5 percent over the pre¬ 
vious year. The national income, according to preliminary calculation, was 
10.6 billion yuan, an increase of 8.6 percent over the previous year. The 
gross industrial and agricultural output value of the 8 nationality autonomous 
prefectures and the 14 nationality autonomous counties grew by 6.8 percent 
compared with that in the previous year. On the basis of the development of 
production, the urban and rural markets throve, the prices were stable, the 
1985 financial revenue quotas stipulated by the "Sixth 5-Year Plan" were ful¬ 
filled 2 years ahead of schedule, the people's livelihood continued to improve. 


11 



and new progress was made in the building of a spiritual civilization. 

However, the increase in energy resources failed to keep pace with the de¬ 
velopment of the entire national economy, there was disparity between the 
purchasing power of society and the sources of commodities, and some econ¬ 
omic results were still below the average national level. 

I. Agriculture 

In 1983, in spite of the serious natural calamities hitting the summer crop, 
by continuing to perfect the system of contracted responsibilities with pay¬ 
ment linked to output, we further aroused the peasants’ enthusiasm about be¬ 
coming rich through labor and reaped bumper harvests. In addition, diversifi¬ 
cation comprehensively developed. The province’s gross agricultural output 
value was 7.049 million yuan and 104.6 percent of the yearly plan was ac¬ 
complished. That was an increase of 6.6 percent over the previous year. The 
gross agricultural output value of the 8 nationality autonomous prefectures 
and the 14 nationality autonomous counties increased by 3.3 percent compared 
with that in the previous year. 

Diversification developed and we hit an all-time high in the output of most 
agricultural products. Of the province’s gross agricultural output value, 

3.031 billion yuan was the output value of grain and its by-products. That 
was an Increase of 2.1 percent over the previous year. Its proportion in the 
gross agricultural output value dropped from 44 percent in the previous year 
to 42 percent. The output value of the production of industrial crops, 
forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production, and fishery was 4.018 billion 
yuan, an increase of 10.1 percent over the previous year. Its proportion in 
the gross agricultural output value rose from 56 percent in the previous year 
to 58 percent. We hit an all-time high in the output of grain, sugarcane, 
silkworn cocoon, tea leaves, rubber, pork, beef, and mutton and the numbers 
of pigs and draught animals were the highest in history. As a result of natur¬ 
al calamities and the decrease in the amount of land devoted to the growing 
of flue-cured tobacco, the output of flue-cured tobacco decreased compared 
with that in the previous year. Output of the major agricultural products was 
as follows; 

Percentage 

Increase 

1983_ Over 1982 


Grain 


19.087 

billion 

jin 

0.9 

of which; 

paddy 

9-138 

billion 

jin 

- 1.5 

Oil-bearing 

seeds 

2.7605 

million 

dan 

- 0.1 

of which; 

rapeseed 

2,1260 

million 

dan 

6.8 

Sugar-bearing crops 

70.9210 

million 

dan 

15.3 

of which; 

sugarcane 

70.8304 

million 

da:n 

15.3 

Tobacco 


3.0609 

million dan 

-41.3 

of which; 

flue-cured tobacco 

2.8884 

million 

dan 

-42.5 


12 



Silkworn cocoon 

26,600 

dan 

11.8 

Tea 

514,300 

dan 

13.0 

Fruits 

3.3537 

million dan 

18.8 


The nationwide afforestation campaign further developed. In 1983, 4.455 
million mu of land was afforested by the province, an increase of 51.2 percent 
over the previous year. The output of several forestry products showed in¬ 
creases to varying degrees. Among them, the output of rubber was 27,000 tons, 
an increase of 12.0 percent over the previous year; the output of tung oil 
tree seeds was 305,500 dan, up 13.2 percent; the output of walnuts was 
561,900 dan, iip 20.1 percent; the output of Chinese chestnut was 50,800 dan, 
up 16.2 percent; and the output of rosin and raw lacquer, which was 192,000 
dan and 3,600 dan, respectively, slightly decreased compared with that in the 
previous year. 

Animal husbandry continued to develop. Output of major animal by-products and 
the number of livestock in 1983 was as follows: 

Percentage 

Increase 

1983 Over 1982 


Output of pork, beef and mutton 
of which: pork 

Hogs slaughtered 

Hogs in stock at year-end 

Large animals at year-end 
of which: buffaloes 


487,000 

tons 

23.6 

470,600 

tons 

25.0 

7,038,800 

heads 

17.0 

16,749,200 

head 

8.4 

7,705,700 

head 

5.1 

2,208,500 

head 

2.5 


Sheep and goats at year-end 7,025,600 head - 1 

Fishery continued to develop. In 1983, the output of aquatic products was 
19,300 tons, an increase of 14.3 percent over the previous year. 


There was quite an enormous growth in the number of farm machines owned by the 
people and in the amount of chemical fertilizer applied. By the end of 1983, 
the total power capacity of the farm machines in our province reached 5.0115 
million horsepower, 10 percent more than at the end of the previous year. 

There were 49,015 walking tractors, 11,045 more than at the end of the pre- 
.vlous year; 5,814 heavy-duty trucks for agricultural purposes, 1,477 more 
than at the end of the previous year; and 43,783 sets of irrigation and drain¬ 
age power equipment, 1,725 more than at the end of the previous year. In 1983, 
1.4747 million tons of chemical fertilizer were applied,, an increase of 21.5 
percent over the previous year. The amount of power consumed in the rural 
areas was 664 million kilowatt-hours, an increase of 3.8 percent over the pre¬ 
vious year. 


13 



II. Industry 

In the course of readjustment, our province*'s industry has grown at a rate of 
more than 10 percent in 2 consecutive years. The growth rate of light indus¬ 
try has exceeded 10 percent in 3 consecutive years. In 1983, the total in¬ 
dustrial output value was 0.019 billion yuan, an Increase of 11.9 percent 
over the previous year, and 106.6 percent of the yearly plan was accomplished. 
Compared with the value in the previous year, the total industrial output value 
achieved by the 8 nationality autonomous prefectures and the 14 nationality 
autonomous counties grew by 12.3 percent. 

Of the 70 major industrial products, those whose output met or topped the state 
plans included: knitting wool, silk fabrics, leather shoes, sugar, cigarettes, 
machine-made paper and paper boards, television sets, washing machines, coal, 
steel, rolled steel, cement, plate glass, phosphate rock, sulphuric acid, 
caustic soda, chemical fertilizers, tire, automobiles, tractors, walking 
tractors, and so on—50 in all. The output of 20 industrial products, includ¬ 
ing yarn, cloth, beer, sewing machines, bicycles, power, and power generating 
equipment, failed to meet the planned quotas. 

In 1983, the total output value of light industry was 4.537 billion yuan, an 
increase of 13.1 percent over the previous year, and 103.3 percent of the 
yearly plan was fulfilled. Its proportion in industry as a whole rose from 
49.8 percent to 50.4 percent. The output value of the food processing indus¬ 
try grew by 16.1 percent. The output value of these 2 industries constituted 
52 percent of the total output value of the province's food processing indus¬ 
try and the total value of the output of sugar, cigarettes, and flue-cured 
tobacco constituted 62 percent of the total output value of the food proces¬ 
sing industry. As a result of the restrictions Imposed on the production of 
certain varieties of textile goods, the output value of textile industry grew 
by 8.1 percent only. Output of the major light industrial products was as 
follows: 




1983 

Percentage 
Increase 
Over 1982 

Cotton yarn 

32,288 

tons 

- 9,5 

Cloth 

147.24 

million meters 

- 8.7 


135,76 

million square meters 

- 5.6 

Chemical fiber 

1,869 

tons 

-41.3 

Woolen piece goods 

210,000 

meters 

17.4 

Silk 

103 

tons 

12.0 

Silk textiles 

2. 

,49 million meters 

11-7 


14 



Machine-made paper and 


paper boards 

71,717 tons 

11.5 

Sugar 

287,600 tons 

15.0 

Cigarettes 

1,4840 million cases 

24.6 

Beer 

5,399 tons 

7.7 

Salt 

286,500 tons 

9.6 

Chemical pharmaceuticals 

120 tons 

- 2.6 

Detergents 

12,043 tons 

20.1 

Bicycles 

156,100 

71.8 

Sewing machines 

33,629 

-72.1 

Watches 

70,023 

67.0 

Television sets 

37,014 

67.8 

Radio sets 

12,756 

-74.4 

Cassette recorders 

22,221 

-35.6 

Household washing machines 

20,007 

15.8 

Light bulbs 

17.25 million 

7.4 


In 1983, the total output value of the province's heavy industry was 4.482 
billion yuan, an increase of 10.7 percent over the previous year, and llO.l 
percent of the yearly plan was fulfilled. The output value of the machine- 
building industry grew by 23.8 percent, ttat of building materials Industry by 
13.b percent, and that of chemical fertilizer and ansecticides by 8 percent. 
Heavy Industry did well In saving energy. The amount of energy consumed for 
the creation of each 1U,U00 yuan of Heavy industrial output value decreased 
by 2,3 percent compared with that In tne previous year. Compared with that in 
the previous year, the output of nonferrous metals increased by 3.3 percent. 

The output of other major heavy industrial products was as follows: 

Percentage 

Increase 

1983_O ver 1982 


Coal 


14.10 million tons 


5.7 


Electricity 

of which: hydroelectricity 


6,164 billion kilOwatt-hours - 0.6 

3,180 billion kilowatt-hours - 3.5 


15 



Pig iron 

576,9_00 tons 

12.9 

Steel 

484,100 tons 

8.6 

Rolled steel 

444,700 tons 

14.9 

Coke 

1,276,000 tons 

2.2 

Timber 

1,952,200 cubic meters 

0.9 

Cement 

2,269,500 tons 

16.9 

Plate glass 

896,500 standard cases 

- 5.2 

Sulphuric acid 

tons 

18.7 

Cuastic Soda 

18,700 tons 

9.6 

Chemical fertilizer 

540,300 tons 

6.4 

of which; nitrogenous 
fertilizer 

357,000 tons 

4.3 

Phosphate 

183,300 tons 

10.6 

Outer rubber tires 

221,000 

55.7 

Power generating equipment 

21,400 kilowatts 

1.6 

Machine tools 

2,648 

9.2 

Motor vehicles 

988 

- 6.1 

Tractors 

183 

440.0 

Walking tractors 

7,684 

36.5 

Internal combustion engines 

360,800 horsepower 

- 5.7 


Industrial economic results continued to improve. In 1983, the income of the 
industrial enterprises owned by the whole people and designated to undertake 
independent accounting from the sales of their products increased by 11.7 
percent, their profits increased by 14.4 percent, the amount of profits and 
income tax Cincluding the two kinds of charges) they delivered to the state 
increased by 15.8 percent, the amount of duty on the sales of their products 
increased by 17.4 percent, the turnover period of their circulating funds 
shortened by 4.7 percent, and their per capita labor productivity grew by 
8.9 percent. The consumption of energy resources by all industrial enter¬ 
prises for the production of each 10,000 yuan of output value decreased by 
5.7 percent, 79.7 percent of the quality indices for the major industrial 
products steadily rose, and 76.0 percent of the Indices for unit consumption 
of raw and processed materials steadily fell. However, in 1983, the output of 


16 



primary energy resources Cio- terms of standard coal) grew by only 4.0 percent 
compared with that in the previous years. This failed to keep pace with the 
growth rate of the output value of social production. In heavy industry, the 
growth rates of the excavating industry and raw materials industry were lower 
than that of manufacturing industry. Some indices for economic results were 
still below the average national level. 

III. Investment in Fixed Assets 

In 1983, the units owned by the whole people in the province invested 2.023 
billion yuan in fixed assets and the urban and rural collectively-owned units 
invested 111 million yuan in fixed assets. The investment in building houses 
for peasants and city and town dwellers was 315 million yuan. 

As a result of the stricter control over the scope of capital construction, 
in 1983, investment in capital construction by the units owned by the whole 
people, which was 1.201 billion yuan, decreased by 7.4 percent compared with 
that in the previous year. Of this, investment covered by the state budget 
was 459 million yuan, an increase of 33 percent over the previous year; in¬ 
vestment from funds raised by the localities and other sources was 541 million 
yuan, a decrease of 5.7 percent over the previous year; and that from domestic 
loans was 195 million yuan, a decrease of 13.2 percent over the previous year. 
The scope of capital construction in our province was controlled so that it 
did not exceed the planned quotas assigned by the state. In 1983, the invest¬ 
ment in capital construction by the 8 nationality autonomous prefectures and 
the 14 nationality autonomous counties decreased by 1.8 percent compared with 
that in the previous year. 

In spite of the reduction in the investment in capital construction, we stepped 
up the construction of the key construction projects. Investment in agri¬ 
culture w^s 113 million yuan, which accounted for 9.4 percent of the total 
investment in the key construction projects. In the year before, it accounted 
for only 8 percent. Investment in the energy industry was 241 million yuan, 

93 million yuan more than in the previous year, and the proportion of such in¬ 
vestment in the total investment in the key construction projects rose from 
11.4 percent to 17.1 percent. Investment in education and scientific research 
was 112 million yuan, 17 million yuan more than in the previous year, and the 
proportion of such investment in the total investment in the key construction 
projects rose from 7.3 percent to 9.3 percent. Of the total investment in 
the key construction projects, 637 million yuan was for productive projects. 

Its proportion in the total Investment in the key construction projects dropped 
from 55.2 percent in the year before to 53.1 percent. Investment in nonproduc¬ 
tive projects was 564 million yuan. Its proportion in the total investment in 
the key construction projects rose from 44.8 percent to 46.9 percent. Of this, 
investment in building houses was 302 million yuan and its proportion dropped 
from 25.9 percent to 25.1 percent. 

The number of projects completed in 1983 was 2,270, including the large and 
medium-size projects such as the No 1 power plant in Xiaolongtan, the Hehua 
sugar refinery, and the Yuanmou sugar refinery. In addition, four large or 
medium-size single items. Including the yellow phospherous plant of the 


17 



Kunming sodium tripolyphosphate plant and Phase 1 of the construction of the 
wu na [0063 6871—penta-sodium] plant, were completed and put into operation. 

The capital construction investment helped add the following major production 
capacities and results: a blooming capacity of 130,000 tons, power generating 
units with a total capacity of 55,000 kilowatts, 30,000 tons of yellow 
phosphorus, 70,000 tons of wu na, 10,000 cubic meters of timber, 1,000 cubic 
meters of shaving board, 500,000 meters of printed or dyed cloth, 12,000 tons 
of machine-processed sugar, 20,000 hides, a cold storage with capacity of 
7,600 tons, and 93,000 places in the schools. 

The technical transformation of the existing enterprises was further stepped 
up. In 1983, a total of 822 million yuan was invested for renewal of equip¬ 
ment, technical transformation, and other measures in the units owned by the 
whole people, an increase of 13.0 percent over the previous year. Of this, 
renewal of equipment and technical transformation accounted for 580 million 
yuan and other measures accounted for 242 million yuan. The proportion of 
investment in productive construction projects in the total investment in re¬ 
newal of equipment, technical transformation, and other measures rose from 
71.9 percent in the year before to 79.9 percent, the proportion of the in¬ 
vestment for stepping up production and the conservation of energy rose from 

6.3 percent in the year before to 8.7 percent, and the investment for adding 
to the varieties of products and Inqiroving their quality rose from 10 percent 
to 10.3 percent. It can be seen from the productive character of the invest¬ 
ment in the other measures that the proportion of the investment in building 
and extending the facilities dropped from 44.1 percent in the year before to 

34.3 percent. 

Results of the Investment in fixed assets improved somewhat, although not in 
a very notable way. Of the 20 key and capital construction projects and 
facilities which the province planned to complete and put into operation in 
1983, 8 were not completed on schedule and the costs of building them were 
higher than those in the previous year. 

Satisfactory results were achieved in geological work. In 1983, 32 new miner¬ 
al bearing areas were discovered in our procince. Newly verified reserves of 
10 minerals including iron, lead, zinc, tungsten, tin, coal, phosphorus, ;and 
blue asbestos outstripped the planned figures. The total drilling footage in 
1983 was 244,500 meters. 

IV. Transportation, Posts and Telecommunications 

In 1983, the total volume of goods transported by all means of transportation 
was 7.394 billion ton-kilometers, up 7.8 percent from the previous year. Of 
this, the volume of railway freight was 5.317 billion ton-kilometers, an in¬ 
crease of 6.4 percent; that of road goods was 2.018 billion ton-kilometers, 
up 10.7 percent; that of waterway cargo was 59 million ton-kilometers, up 
50.7 percent; and that of air freight was 410,000 ton-kilometers, down 10.9 
percent. 

In 1983, the volume of passenger travel handled by all means of transporta¬ 
tion available in our province was 4.772 billion person-kilometers, up 13.8 


18 



percent from the previous year. Of this, the volume of railway carriage was 
1.492 billion person-kilometers, up 7.8 percent; the volume of road passengers 
was 3.253 billion person-kilometers, up 16.8 percent; the volume of waterway 
passengers was 25 million person-kilometers, up 2.2 percent; and the volume 
of passengers by air was 2.21 million person-kilometers, down 14.3 percent. 

In 1983, the posts and telecommunications transactions amounted to 52.09 
million yuan, 7.8 percent up from the previous year. Of this, the number of 
letters Increased by 3.6 percent, the combined circulation of newspapers and 
magazines grew by 11.6 percent, the number of telegrams increased by 9.1 
percent, and the number of long-distance calls increased by 5.6 percent. The 
number of telephones in urban use increased by 10.1 percent over that at the 
end of the previous year. 

In 1983, the economic results of the province's departments of transportation, 
posts, and telecommunications improved. Per capita labor productivity for 
railway transport enterprises registered a 5.4 percent increase over the pre¬ 
vious year. Oil consumption by diesel locomotives per 10,000 ton-kilometer 
of freight volume dropped by 1.2 percent and the consumption of coal by steam 
locomotives per 10,000 ton-kilometers decreased by 7.0 percent. A 10 percent 
increase was achieved in the annual profit made. Per capita labor productiv¬ 
ity of enterprises directly under the department of communications increased by 
8.3 percent compared with that in the previous year. Oil consumption by petrol 
engine vehicles per 100 ton-kilometers dropped by 3.4 percent and oil consump¬ 
tion by diesel engine vehicles per 100 ton-kilometers decreased by 1.6 per¬ 
cent. A 34.4 percent increase was achieved in the profit made. 

V. Domestic Trade 

More commodities were purchased. In 1983, the total value of commodities 
purchased by the province's state-owned commercial departments and supply and 
marketing cooperatives reached 5.426 billion yuan, topping that in the previous 
year by 10.8 percent. Purchases of the major commodities surpassed the pre¬ 
vious year. Purchases of some daily necessities and durable goods grew in a 
particularly noticeable manner. Among them, the purchases of grain (commodity 
grain) reached 3.943 billion jin, a 22.1 percent increase; hogs, 3.4194 mil¬ 
lion, up 27.4 percent; sugar, up 16.9 percent; cigarettes, up 24.3 percent, 
radio sets, up 56.3 percent; watches, up 91.60 percent; bicycles, up 130 
percent; and television sets, up 200 percent. Commodities in stock at the 
end of the year grew by 2.8 percent compared with those in the previous year. 

The supply of commodities in the markets became more and more plentiful. In 
1983, the total value of retail sales of social commodities in our province was 
6.210 billion yuan, an increase of 16.5 percent over the previous year, or an 
actual increase of 15.3 percent if the rise in prices is excluded. Total value 
of retail sales by collectively owned commercial units was 613 million yuan, 
an increase of 16.7 percent over the previous year; and the total value of 
retail sales by individual commercial units was 331 million yuan, an increase 
of 2b/ percent over the previous year. The total value of retail sales by 
peasants to the non-agricultural population was 357 million yuan, an increase 
of 19,2 percent over the previous year. The proportion of the total value of 


19 



retail sales by collectively owned commercial units in the total value of the 
retail sales of social commodities was basically the same as that in the pre¬ 
vious year, while the proportion of the total value of the retail sales by 
individual commercial units rose from 1.6 percent to 5.3 percent. The pro¬ 
portion of the retail sales by the peasants to the non-agrlcultural popula¬ 
tion rose from 5.6 percent in the previous year to 5.6 percent. In 1983, the 
total value of the retail sales of social commodities by the 8 nationality 
autonomous prefectures and the 14 nationality autonomous counties Increased 
by 15.7 percent compared with that In the previous year. 

The volume of retail sales for the majority of the major consumer goods went 
up. The increase over the previous year for grain was 8.5 percent; for edible 
vegetable oil, 7.8 percent; for port, 20.7 percent; for eggs, 25.4 percent; 
for sugar, 11.0 percent; for cigarettes, 21.6 percent; for knitted underwear, 
9.7 percent; for rubber shoes, 15.4 percent; for soap, 12.5 percent; for 
washing powder, 17.3 percent; for watches, 15.4 percent; for bicycles, 41.9 
percent; and for television sets, 28.1 percent. 

Rural and urban fair trade flourished. The total volume of business throughout 
the year was 1.355 billion yuan, an increase of 21.9 percent over the previous 
year. 


Market prices remained basically stable. In 1983, retail prices rose 1 per¬ 
cent over the previous year. The index for the cost of living of the workers 
rose 0.6 percent over the previous year. Retail prices of daily consumer 
goods in the cities rose by 0.5 percent and the charges for various services 
rose by 0.6 percent. As more commodities were purchased at negotiated prices 
or at higher-than-normal prices for produce purchased beyond state quotas, 
the total purchasing price index for agricultural and sideline products went 
up 4.6 percent over the previous year. 

The economic results of the commercial units: In 1983, the turnover period 
for the circulating funds of the commercial units in our province was 6 days 
shorter than in the previous year and profit increased by 13.9 percent. The 
expenses involved in commodity circulation rose from 9.90 percent in the pre¬ 
vious year to 10.07 percent. The profits of the cooperatives increased by 
13.6 percent. However, the expenses involved in commodity circulation in the 
cooperatives rose from 9.87 percent in the previous year to 11.97 percent. 

VI. Foreign Trade, Tourism 

Export and import trade comprehensively grew. According to the statistics 
compiled by the foreign trade departments, in 1983, the total value of the 
province's imports and exports came to $147 million, an Increase of 10.6 
percent over the previous year. Total value of the province's exports in 
1983 was $119 million, an increase of 12.6 percent over the previous year, and 
the total value of imports $29 million, an increase of 6.9 percent over the 
previous year. The value of exports was $90 million more than imports. 

The proportion of mechanical equipment exported dropped from 3.8 percent in 
the previous year to 3.2 percent; that of light industrial products, textile 


20 



goods, and handicrafts dropped from 8.6 percent in the previous year to 6.2 
percent; that of industrial chemicals and minerals rose from 32.9 percent in 
the previous year to 34.7 percent; and that of grain, oil, tea, animal by¬ 
products, and native products rose from 54.7 percent in the previous year to 

55.1 percent. 

The proportion of light industrial products and textile goods in all the goods 
imported dropped from 52.0 percent in the previous year to 26.3 percent; that 
of hardware and chemical products rose from 28.6 percent in the previous year 
to 31.6 percent; and that of mechanical and other equipment rose from 19.4 
percent in the previous year to 42.1 percent. 

Tourism developed. In 1983, a total of 39,300 people from 50 countries and 
regions came to the province on tours and visits and for trade, sports, and 
scientific and cultural exchanges, an increase of 10.9 percent over the pre 
vlous year. Among them, 22,600, or 57.4 percent, were foreigners; 3,400, or 
8.7 percent were Overseas Chinese; and 13,300, or 33.9 percent, were compat¬ 
riots from Hong Kong and Macao. The foreign exchange income from these 
sources was valued at $7.39 million. Of this: $1.22 million, or 16 percent, 
was from the sales of commodities to them; $1.66 million, or 22.4 percent, 
was charges for board and lodging; and $4.51 million, or 61.0 percent, was 
charges for transportation, telecommunications, posts, and other services. 

VII. Science, Technology, Education, and Culture 

The contingents of scientists and technologists continued to expand. Accord¬ 
ing to the statistics compiled by the labor personnel departments, in 1983, 
the local units owned by the whole people had a total of 145,100 scientists 
and technologists, 7,655 more than in the previous year. Among them, ^.&00 
are of minority nationalities, 1,733 more than in the previous year. There 
were 16,800 assistant research fellows, engineers, agrotechnicians, physi¬ 
cians- in-charge, and lecturers or holders of more senior posts, 1,979 more 
than in the previous year. Among them, 967 were of minority nationalities, 

145 more than in the previous year. 

In scientific research, the principle of serving economic construction was 
enthusiastically implemented and the popularization of scientific achievements 
was stepped up. According to incomplete-statistics, 83 projects were aunc e 
to research into grain crops and to popularize the research results and 9.2916 
mu of land was devoted to the application of technical measures. Con^quently, 
there was a net increase of 835 me lion jin in the output of gram. The re¬ 
sults Of the reform of the system of interplanting of crops on dry land, the 
application of fertilizer at intermediate depth, the demonstrations on the 
growing of Dianyu No 1-type rice, and the demonstrations of comprehensive 
agricultural experiments were quite outstanding. A total of 37 projects were 
launched to research into industrial problems and to popularize the research 
results. An economic result of 12.19 million yuan was achieved. 

Education developed in the course of readjustment. In 1983, institutions of 
higher learning in our province enrolled 7,163 students, or ^7 more than in 
the previous year. These institutions had a total enrollment of 20,900 stu 
dents, 1,577 more than in the previous year. Among them, 3,235 were of the 


21 




minority nationalities, 642 more than in the previous year. In 1983, the 
secondary technical schools had a total of 37,300 students, 4,156 more than 
in the previous year. The ordinary secondary schools had a total of 859,000 
students, 20,800 more than in the previous year. The agricultural and voca¬ 
tional secondary schools had a total of 16,700 students, 9,488 more than in 
the previous year. The apprentice schools had 8,091 students, 2,102 more 
than in the previous year. Readjustment and restructuring were continued in 
the secondary schools. The proportion of students given a technical or voca¬ 
tional education rose from 25.4 percent in the previous year to 28.9 percent. 
The primary schools had a total enrollment of 4.579 million pupils, 221,700 
more than in the previous year. The number of children given an education in 
the kindergartens was 171,900, 11,600 more than in the previous year. The 
number of adults receiving higher education was 11,600, 3,105 more than in 
the previous year. 

New achievements were made in the building of socialist spiritual civiliza¬ 
tion by cultural undertakings including literature, the arts, films, the 
press, radio, television, cultural relics, and publications. The whole 
province had 1,011 film projecting units, 3,674 film projecting teams, 157 
performing arts troupes, 148 art centers, 1,025 cultural stations, 142 
public libraries, and 5 museums. The nationality autonomous prefectures 
and counties had 202 cinemas, 2,242 film projecting teams, 86 performing arts 
troupes, 76 cultural centers, 586 cultural stations, and 77 libraries. 
Throughout the whole province, there were 5 radio stations, 32 transmitting 
and relay stations, 1 television center, and 8 television transmitting and 
relay stations each with a capacity above 1,000 watts. A total of 196.53 
million copies of provincial, prefectural, and county newspapers, 11.16 
million copies of magazines of all kinds, and 88.1 million copies of books 
were published. 

VIII. Public Health and Sports 

New progress was made in public health undertakings. At the end of the year, 
the total number of hospital beds for the province reached 63,900, an increase 
of 2.1 percent compared with the end of the previous year. The number of pro¬ 
fessional health workers totaled 82,200, a 3.3 percent increase compared with 
the end of the previous year. This included 38,300 doctors, an increase of 
3.5 percent, and 16,400 senior nurses and nurses, an increase of 7.0 percent. 
The number of peasants cured rose by 2.6 percent and the incidence of acute 
infectious diseases dropped by 1.9 percent. Quality of the medical service 
gradually improved. 

A rather rapid progress was made in physical culture. In 1983, a total of 
872 sports meets at county level and above, in which 222,700 contestants par¬ 
ticipated, were held in the province. In 1983, as many as 266,000 people 
reached the "state standards for physical training." The province had a 
total of 336 top-notch sportsmen (106 were female and 66 were of the minority 
nationalities) who were members of various sports teams. Of them, 92 reached 
the standards of first-class, second-class, and third-class sportsmen. In 
1983, sportsmen from the province broke 4 national records and won 2 Asian 
championships, 12 national championships, and 2 world championships. 


22 


IX. People's Livelihood 

The year 1983 saw a continued improvement in the people's living standards 
in both cities and countryside, A sample survey of 160 peasants under 61 
production brigades in 28 counties showed an average annual net income per 
capita of 274.4 yuan, an increase of 18.4 percent over the previous year. 

Of those surveyed, the percentage of households with an average 300 yuan of 
net Income per capita rose from 18.7 percent in the previous year to 31.5 
percent and the percentage of households with an average of less than 100 
yuan of net income per capita dropped from 3.4 percent in the previous year 
to 1.1 percent. 

In 1983, in our province, a total of 76,900 people were given jobs, including 
young people waiting for jobs in cities and towns and other categories of 
people Cbut excluding those covered by the state job assignment programme). 

By the end of the year, the number of workers and staff members in units 
owned by the whole people and the collectively-owned city and town units came 
to 2.4705 million, this being 49,300 more than at the end of the previous 
year. Of these, 2.1548 million were in units owned by the whole people, 

38,300 more than at the end of the previous year, and 315,700 were in col¬ 
lectively-owned city and town units, 11,000 more than at the end of the pre¬ 
vious year. At the end of 1983, there were 44,900 licensed Individual labor¬ 
ers in cities and towns, 19,800 more than at the end of the previous year. 

In 1983, the annual wages of workers and staff members in the province 
totaled 2.028 billion yuan, an increase of 6.4 percent over the previous 
year. The total for workers in units owned by the whole people was 1.811 
billion yuan, an increase of 6.2 percent over the previous year, and the total 
for workers in the collectively—owned units in the cities and towns of the 
province was 217 million yuan, an increase of 7.9 percent over the previous 
year. Of the total annual wages of workers and staff members in units owned 
by the whole people, bonuses and payments for above—quota work totaled 217 
million yuan, an increase of 10.5 percent over the previous year. 

The average annual monetary wage for workers and staff members in the province 
was 840 yuan, an increase of 4.2 percent over the previous year.^ Of this, the 
average annual monetary wage for workers and staff members in units owned by 
the whole people was 857 yuan, an increase of 3.9 percent oyer [the previous?] 
year; and that for workers and staff members in the collectively owned units 
in cities and towns was 719 yuan, an increase of 6.4 percent over the pre¬ 
vious year. A sample survey of the income and expenses of 330 households of 
workers and staff members in Kunming, Gejlu, and Xiaguan showed an average 
annual income per capita of 494.54 yuan which could be used for living ex¬ 
penses an increase of 4.3 percent over the previous year, when it was 473.94 
yuan. Deducting the 0.6 percent rise in the cost of living index, the actual 
per capita income rose by 3.7 percent. Of those surveyed, the percentage of 
households of workers and staff members with an average income per capita of 
600 yuan which could be used for living expenses rose from 19.1 percent in 
the previous year to 23.6 percent and the percentage of households of workers 
and staff members with an average income per capita of less than 300 yuan 


23 



which could he used for living expenses dropped from 6.7 percent in the pre¬ 
vious year to 4.5 percent. 

Labor safety work was strengthened. The number of deaths of workers and staff 
members on duty decreased by 2.25 percent compared with that in the previous 
year and the number of seriously Injured workers and staff members decreased 
by 9.3 percent. 

The total amount of savings deposits by the people in the province was 1.617 
billion yuan, 3bl million yuan more than in the previous year. The amount of 
savings deposits by the people in the towns and cities was 291 million yuan 
more than in the previous year. The amount of savings deposits by rural com¬ 
mune members was 90 million yuan more than in the previous year. The total 
amount of savings deposits by the people in the rural and urban areas of the 
nationality autonomous prefectures and counties was 200 million yuan more 
than at the end of the previous year. Of this, 131 million yuan was the 
increase in the amount of savings deposits by the people in the towns and 
cities of the nationality autonomous prefectures and counties and the other 
69 million yuan was the Increase in the amount of savings deposits by the 
commune members. 

In 1983, the units in our province owned by the whole people built 2.828 
million square meters of living quarters for workers and staff members with 
part of the Investment for capital construction and the renewal of facilities. 
Housing built by the collectively-owned units in the rural and urban areas 
amounted to 298,000 square meters. The people in the cities and towns built 
85,000 square meters of housing and the rural commune members built 13.45 
million square meters of housing. 

Work was strengthened to support those who need help. In 1983, the number 
of orphans, aged people, disabled people, and widows supported by the rural 
collective economy was 66.800. A total of 71 homes for the aged were built 
in the rural areas, an increase of 260 percent over the previous year. They 
had a total of 86 inmates, an increase of 370 percent over the previous year. 
There were 33 public welfare institutions and orphanages with a total of 1,334 
inmates. 

X. Population 

Population in the province by the end of 1983 was 33,191,000, which was 
360,000 more than the previous year's figure of 32,831,000. The population of 
the minority nationalities was 10,461,000, which was 139,000 more than at the 
end of the previous year. 

According to a sample survey of 102,444 people drawn at random from 26 counties 
(districts), the birth rate in 1983 was 23,57 per thousand, the morality rate 
was 9.19 per thousand, and the natural growth rate was 14.38 per thousand. 


CSO: 4006/604 


24 . 



AGGREGATE ECONOMIC DATA 


MAY FIGURES FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, TRANSPORT 
HK020931 Beijing JINGJI RIBAO in Chinese 16 Jun 84 p 2 


[Report: "Main Figures for Industrial Production and Transport in May, Pre¬ 


pared by the State Statistical Bureau ] 
[Text] 



January to May 
1984 

Industrial gross 
output value 

270,690,000,000 

That of light in¬ 
dustry 

134,040,000,000 

That of heavy in¬ 
dustry 

136,650,000,000 

Bicycles 

11,448,800 

Sewing machines 

3,971,200 

Watches 

14,303,000 

TV sets 

3,489,900 

Radios 

10,938,200 

Recorders 

2,188,400 

Family washing 
machines 

1,920,600 

Cameras 

446,500 


January 
To May 
1984 as 
Percen¬ 
tage of 
January 
to May 


May 1984 

Unit 

1983 

58,890,000,000 

yuan 

111.7 

28,560,000,000 

yuan 

111.6 

30,330,000,000 

yuan 

111.8 

2,322,000 


106.2 

808,400 


85.8 

2,934,000 


98.6 

774,000 


141.2 

2,070,900 


157.5 

498,400 


127.7 

465,700 


138.9 

98,200 


127.6 


25 



Electric fans 

6,181,400 

1,722,400 


158.6 

Family refrigerators 

133,356 

33,235 


220.4 

Synthetic Fibers 

280,600 

60,700 

metric tons 

138.2 

Cotton yarn 

1,316,100 

282,300 

metric tons 

96.3 

Cloth 

5,650,000,000 

1,209,000,000 

meters 

91.6 

Among which 





Synthetic cloth 

2,351,000,000 

509,000,000 

meters 

129.5 

Silk fabrics 

439,000,000 

99,000,000 

meters 

114.9 

Woolen fabrics 

65,110,000 

14,600,000 

meters 

126.3 

Knitting wool 

44,000 

9,200 

metric tons 

114.5 

Sugar 

2,522,200 

50,600 

metric tons 

91.2 

Salt 

6,420,000 

3,562,000 

metric tons 

152.6 

Cigarettes 

7,841,000 

1,501,000 

cartons 

103.0 

Beer 

717,000 

229,500 

metric tons 

136.2 

Machine-made paper 
and paper board 

2,780,600 

620,700 

metric tons 

111.2 

Electric bulbs 

559,000,000 

116,000,000 


112.8 

Coal 

304,069,000 

66,092,000 

metric tons 

110.3 

Petroleum 

46,101,000 

9,599,000 

metric tons 

106.1 

Natural gas 

4,998,000,000 

987,000,000 

cubic meters 

98.1 

Electricity 

151,430,000,000 

31,930,000,000 

kilowatt-hours 

107.5 

Among which: 





Hydroelectricity 

31,360,000,000 

8,440,000,000 

kilowatt-hours 

101.6 

Pig iron 

16,421,000 

3,442,000 

metric tons 

108.2 

Steel 

17,941,000 

3,735,000 

metric tons 

108.6 

Rolled steel 

13,835,300 

2,893,700 

metric tons 

109.1 


26 


Coke (machine niadel 

14,846,100 

3,083,900 

metric tons 

105.6 

Sulfuric acid 

3,661,800 

767,200 

metric tons 

100.4 

Soda ash 

787,500 

164,400 

metric tons 

104.0 

Caustic soda 

911,900 

192,800 

metric tons 

103.1 

Fertilizers 

6,204,100 

1,330,000 

metric tons 

106.4 

Pharmaceutical products 

23,600 

5,100 

metric tons 

116.1 

Chemical pesticides 

151,500 

36,100 

metric tons 

89.2 

Cement 

46,321,000 

10,708,000 

metric tons 

112.4 

Plate glass 

18,195,800 

3,429,200 

standard packs 

109.3 

Power generation 
equipment 

1,079,600 

360,000 

kilowatts 

221.3 

Metal-cutting machine 
tools 

50,600 

11,100 


108.4 

Automobiles 

114,800 

25,500 


120.5 

Walking tractors 

258,500 

57,500 


133.6 

Locomotives 

272 

56 


109.2 

Volume of railway 
freight 

499,000,000 

104,000,000 

metric tons 

104.8 

Volume of freight of 





the ships directly 
under the Ministry 
of Communications 

67,000,000 

15,000,000 

metric tons 

107.6 


CSO; 4006/604 


27 



AGGREGATE ECONOMIC DATA 


BRIEFS 

JILIN COUNTY-CITY PRODUCTION ACHIEVEMENTS—A number of cities and counties 
in Jilin Province became advanced in grain and industrial production in 
1983. Changling County and Yanji City doubled their 1982 total agricultural 
and industrial output values. Changling, Dongliao, Qlanan, Lishu, Huaide, 
and Shuangliao counties surpassed their 1982 total agricultural output value 
by more than 100 percent. Huaide, Lishu, Shuangyang, Changling, and Yitong 
counties as well as Siping City scored their per peasant income of more than 
500 yuan. The per peasant income of Huaide County reached 610 yuan. [Ex¬ 
cerpts] [Changchun Jilin Provincial Service in Mandarin 2200 GMT 21 May 84 
SK] 


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28 


ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT 


SHANXI; PROVINCE SIGNS ECONOMIC COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS 
SK150553 Taiyuan SHANXI RIBAO in Chinese 15 May 84 p 1 

[Text] Comrades who have just returned from the Northeast Regional Economic 
and Technological Cooperative Meeting told reporters that by 11 May, Shanxi 
Province had signed 158 technological cooperative agreements with more than 
10 provinces and cities, including Jiangsu and Zhenjiang Provinces and 
Shanghai Municipality. The contents of these agreements were more substan¬ 
tial, advanced, and advantageous to enlivening the province's economy and 
improving economic results. 

In accordance with the unified state plan, our province will allocate about 
10 million tons of coal annually to other provinces and cities through econ¬ 
omic cooperation. In the past few years, the main contents of cooperation 
were limited to exchanging coal for materials. Including Industrlel produc¬ 
tion raw materials in short suppy and high-grade manufactured goods for daily 
use. Since last year, we have changed the emphasis of the province's indus¬ 
trial production from setting up new establishments in an effort to expand 
production into tapping internal potential, and have focused enterprise re¬ 
form on technological progress. Therefore, our province's economic cooper¬ 
ation with other provinces and cities will be gradually focused on importing 
advanced technology, techniques, equipment and management experience. Last 
year, our province signed 73 technological cooperation agreements with Jiangsu 
and Zhejiang Provinces and Shanghai Municipality, and about 80 percent of them 
were fulfilled and yielded results within the year. According to incomplete 
statistics, these projects added 100 million yuan of output value and 36.8 
million yuan of taxes and profits in the year. 

Another change in our province's cooperation with the coastal provinces and 
cities is that we have trained personnel of the same trades and helped them 
in a planned manner instead of just sending out personnel on visits and study. 
The minor chemical fertilizer enterprises scored fairly good achievements in 
this regard. Some 26 plants established cooperative relations on helping and 
learning from each other with advanced enterprises of the related trades in 
the coastal regions. Thus, they succeeded in ending deficits and increasing 
profits. According to statistics, since last year, some 20 plants in pur 
province have established such ties with the coastal provinces arid cities. 

They have employed more than 800 personnel from the coastal provinces and 
cities to help in their work and to transfer technology to them. At the same 


29 



time, our province has also dispatched some 700 personnel to help train 
workers of the counterpart plants in other provinces. It has also asked 
institutions of higher learning to help train specialized personnel that are 
needed in the province. 

The third change is that we have absorbed funds through compensation trades 
instead of simple material exchanges. Last year, our province signed 13 
contracts with Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Wuhan to collect 300 million yuan. 

Our province used such fund, for carrying out energy and communications 
projects and for technological reform in outdated enterprises. Our province 
will repay such funds with coal within a certain period of time. 

The fourth change is that we have developed economic integrations which 
closely combine responsibilities, rights, and profits together instead of just 
helping counterparts. The nonferrous metal general research institute of the 
Ministry of Metallurgical Industry established a cooperative integration with 
Xinzhou Prefectural Tungsten Plant to engage in research and production. 

They specifically cooperated in 14 projects and succeeded in doubling the 
economic results. Their products found good markets in all localities. 


CSO: 4006/604 



ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT 


HUNAN REPORT ON REFORMING PLANNING MANAGEMENT 

HK250347 Changsha Hunan Provincial Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 24 Jun 84 

[Excerpt] In his 20 Jun report to the second session of the Sixth Provincial 
People’s Congress, Provincial Planning Committee Chairman (Ge Hua) proposed: 

We must further reform the planning management setup, persistently take 
planned economy as the main factor and regulation by market mechanism as 
supplementary, do well in controlling and managing the main things, and 
ensure relaxation and enlivenment in minor aspects. 

(Ge Hua) said: Although some initial reforms have been carried out in the 
planning setup in recent years, there are still excessive and rigid controls. 
Departments, prefectures, and cities, and especially the enterprises, lack 
decisionmaking powers. We must resolutely carry out reforms. 

On initial ideas for reforming the planned setup, he said: In production 
planning, guidance planning should be introduced in agricultural production. 
Mandatory targets should be issued for the procurement and shipments of major 
agricultural and sideline products related to the national economy and the 
people's livelihood, those that are major raw materials for the light and 
textile Industries, and those for foreign trade and export. Output exces¬ 
sive to these targets, and other agricultural and sideline products, can be 
produced and sold by the peasants themselves or used for market regulation. 

In industrial production plans, the control scope should be narrowed and 
the categories of products managed by the provincial authorities should be 
reduced. The Provincial Planning Committee is preparing to relax controls 
on 128 products, which will then come under arrangement by the prefectures, 
cities, departments, and bureaus. Under the premise of ensuring the fulfill¬ 
ment of the mandatory state plans, the enterprises can organize excessive 
production or arrange the production of other products. They can sell all 
products themselves with the exception of those on which the state has special 
regulations forbidding this practice. The prices can float in the range set 
down by the state. 

In capital construction planning, we should simplify the examination and ap¬ 
proval procedures and hand down jurisdiction in this matter to other levels. 

We should reduce the number of links and improve economic results. 


CSO: 4006/604 


31 



ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT 


SHUIE JiNGJl DAOBAO INTERVIEWS SHANGHAI MAYOR 

HK2:)0b43 Shanghai SHIJIE JINGJi DAOBAO in Chinese 4 Jun 84 p 2 

[Report: "Wang Daohan on How Shanghai Will Make Further Progress"] 

[Text] Mayor Wang Daohan answered questions raised by reporters from this 
newspaper. 

Question: Mayor Wang, when the NPC was in session, people's deputies from 
various parts of the country showed their concern for the economic construc¬ 
tion of Shanghai and sincerely hoped that Shanghai would make further progress. 
You have just returned from Beijing. Could you speak about the way to further 
promote the economic construction of Shanghai based on the new starting point? 

Answer: You have asked a very good question. Shanghai is a city that belongs 
to the whole country. Shanghai's important position has determined that it 
should shoulder a glorious and strenuous task for the people of the whole 
country. For a long time in the past we failed to make an in-depth study of 
the new situation and new problems occurring on the road of advance, and to 
keep abreast with the development of the situation. This was mainly because 
we had not fully and boldly emancipated our minds to advance with big strides. 
Therefore, with regard to the Implementation of the policy of opening up to 
foreign countries and vitalizing the domestic economy, our work is still far 
from meeting the demand of the four modernizations of the state. Shanghai is 
facing a favorable situation, but the situation is also spurring us on. I 
believe that pressure can be turned into a motivational force, and this force 
can be turned into actual strength. In other words, Shanghai can catch up 
and make further progress. 

Question: What are your tentative, new ideas on the economic development of 
Shanghai? 

Answer: Proceeding from the actual conditions and position of Shanghai and 
the role it should play, Shanghai should have a foothold in the city itself, 
rely on the whole country, have the Pacific in mind, and advance toward the 
international market. Having a foothold in the city Itself means that 
Shanghai should follow the path of "squeezing out, establishing internal 
links, promoting reforms, and carrying out exploitation," and give full play 
to its role as a coastal industrial base and port city. 


32 


Relying on the whole country means that the economic development of Shanghai 
is Indispensable from the support of the whole country. In the meantime, 
Shanghai should also support economic construction in various localities with 
its industrial products, technical force, scientific and technical achieve¬ 
ments, and management experience, in order to accumulate construction funds 
for the state. Having the Pacific in mind means that since Shanghai is 
located on the west coast of the Pacific, it should use this to promote 
friendly cooperation with countries in the region to boldly Import foreign 
capital and advanced technology and speed up the four modernizations. Ad¬ 
vancing toward the International market means that Shanghai was formerly an 
international city, and this status should be further maintained. Through 
the Pacific we should further establish ties with Europe, the Middle East, 
the Near East, and the Third World Countries. Under the leadership of the 
central authorities and the State Council, we should further develop our 
friendly relations with various countries in the world so that we can develop 
our economy and enhance our competitive capability on the international 
market. 

Question: What plans has Shanghai formulated for reform? 

Answer; Without reforming certain unreasonable economic and management sys¬ 
tems, it is impossible to build a Chinese-type socialism. Reform is a key 
link in the present economic work of Shanghai. We should emancipate our 
minds, boldly carry out reforms, and speed up our progress. 

Since reform is an extensive and profound revolution, it is bound to encounter 
various kinds of obstacles. We should further mobilize the broad masses of 
cadres, workers, and staff members to unify their thinking and actions, sur¬ 
mount all obstacles, give up the egalitarianism of "eating out of the same 
big pot," remove barriers and blockades between departments and regions, and 
smash various kinds of fetters that shackle the vitality of enterprises, try 
their best to stand in the forefront of reforms, and become reform promoters. 

The reform of economic and management systems is a systematic project that 
should be carried out step by step under leadership. The plans concerned 
should be based on the situation as a whole and aimed at solving specific 
problems arising in reforms in a down-to-earth manner in order to speed up 
reforms in Shanghai. At present we are working out plans for the reform of 
the economic system. Various departments of the municipal government are 
formulating specific plans, which include the seven items such as streamlining 
administration, transferring power to lower levels, enlivening enterprises, 
and others. Once conditions are ripe, the reforms will be carried out one 
after another. Some reforms should first be carried out on a trial basis, and 
can only be popularized after gaining experience. To strengthen the leader¬ 
ship over the reforms of the economic system of Shanghai, the municipal people's 
government has decided to establish an office in charge of the reform of the 
economic system, in order to unify the plans, coordinate the reform work of the 
whole city, and promote the progress of reform step by step in a guided way. 

Question: Could we ask you to speak more about how Shanghai will further im¬ 
plement its open-door policy? 


33 




Answer: Shanghai is an econcwaic, cultural, scientific, and technical center, 
and an important coastal industrial base, as well as a port city in China. 
Shanghai has established economic and trade ties with more than 140 cities 
and regions in the world, and has become a friendly city with 11 foreign 
cities. It has Imported advanced technology and facilities from foreign 
countries to reform a number of medium and small enterprises, and signed 
contracts on a number of projects for Sino^foreign joint ventures. All 
these have createc conditions and accumulated experience for further imple¬ 
mentation of the open-door policy. 

After the announcement of the news that the 14 coastal cities will be further 
opened up to foreign countries, foreign businessmen have come to Shanghai one 
after another to discuss investment and the possibility of cooperation. At 
present, while working out and studying policies and determining investment 
times, we take active measures to hold talks with foreign businessmen. In 
accordance with the conditions for further opening up to foreign countries, 
we will implement certain policies for the special zones and make use of 
various forms and means such as Sino-forelgn joint ventures, Sino-foreign 
cooperation, business based on sole foreign capital, and so forth to speed 
up the progress of making use of foreign capital and introducing technology. 
Through extensive economic and technical cooperation and exchanges, various 
economic departments have further established relations with the International 
market to absorb the advanced technology and management experience of various 
foreign countries. We should regard our efforts to make use of foreign 
capital. Introduce technology and strengthen international cooperation as a 
strategic guiding principle and long-term policy for the economic and social 
development of Shanghai. We are planning to adopt the following specific 
measures: 

1. We will make use of foreign capital to speed up technical reforms in the 
old enterprises. To attain the strategic objective of "quadrupling the gross 
annual output value of industrial and agricultural production," Shanghai 
should mainly rely on the existing enterprises. Therefore, to make use of 
foreign capital, we should first grasp the technical reforms of the old enter¬ 
prises. The present technical reforms based on single project should be de¬ 
veloped Into systematic technical reforms, so that all trades and services 
will equip themselves with new technology and change the present situation of 
backward technology. 

2. We will make use of foreign capital to develop new technology. We have 
been considering regarding the microelectronic industry as a breakthrough point 
for actively developing new technology in the fields of new materials, optical 
fiber communication, lasers, biological projects, robots, marine projects, 

and so forth. We should use the new technology to reform traditional tech¬ 
nology, and gradually establish the new industries to greet the new technical 
revolution of the world. 

3. We will make use of foreign capital to construct new areas. Recently we 
have been planning to:speed up tne construction in the new areas of Minxing 
and Hongqiao, so that they will become the main [words indistinctj of foreign 
Investment in Shanghai. We have been making preparations to develop the 


34 



microelectronic industrial area of Caohejing. At the next stage, we will 
devote our main efforts to developing the area of Jinshanwei. 

4. We will make use of foreign capital to develop tourism and establish a > 
trade center. We have been planning to build two or three multi-story hotels 
and office buildings next year. During the period of the "Seventh 5-Year 
Plan" we will make use of foreign capital to build a new group of hotels 

and office buildings. To meet the demand of Internal and external economic 
exchanges we have been planning to build several trade centers and cultural 
places so that businessmen at home and from abroad will be happy to come to 
Shanghai. 

5. We will make use of foreign capital to speed up urban construction. While 
doing our utmost to build more dwellings for residents, we will reconstruct 
and build new ports, railway stations, airport, tunnels, elevated highways, 
and other basic facilities such as underground railways, highways, postal and 
telecommunications services, and so forth. 

At the same time, we are also studying policies concerned with attracting 
foreign capital, which mainly include the following: 1) With regard to tax 
revenue, we have been preparing to follow the methods of Shenzhen to give 
preferential treatment to foreign businessmen in terms of profit tax; 2) 
under normal conditions, business profits should be higher than bank interest 
rates; 3) with regard to the rent on construction sites paid by foreign in¬ 
vestors, it can be turned into investment or shared by departments concerned 
in accordance with the relevant stipulations of the state, ,and the methods 
of Guangdong and Beijing can be used as a guideline; 4) with regard to a bal¬ 
ance of foreign exchange, foreign businessmen should be allowed to remit in 
foreign exchange their due amount of profit to foreign countries; 5) with 
regard to hiring and firing workers, Sino-foreign ventures and enterprises 
run by foreign capital have their own decisionmaking power; 6) with regard 
to remuneration of workers and staff members working in Sino-foreign ventures 
and enterprises run by foreign capitalists actual wages of workers and staff 
members should be separated from their fringe benefits and the allowances 
provided by the state. Wages should be given to workers and staff members 
themselves; 7) banks should assist and offer conveniences to Sino-foreign 
ventures and enterprises run by foreign capital in respect to credit; 0 Sino- 
foreign ventures and enterprises run by foreign capital have their own power 
over business. They are independent business units. 

Question: While further implementing the open-door policy, is there any new 
task for Shanghai with regard to the work of "establishing internal links?" 

Answer: Under the new situation of reforms and the implementation of the 
open-door policy, Shanghai should make a bigger step to do the work Of ’'estab¬ 
lishing internal links," follow a new path, and lay a better role as a key 
city. Shanghai and other fraternal areas may cooperate to make use of foreign 
capital and introduce technology. In particular, in the economic zone of the 
Chang Jiang Delta, under unified planning, departments concerned may make use 
of their own favorable conditions, learn from others' strong points to offset 
their own weaknesses, cooperate to run Sino-foreign ventures, or cooperate to 


35 



raise funds both at home and abroad. Joint production of some products, name¬ 
brand products in particular, should be promoted in order to expand their 
exports. Shanghai should fully make use of its port conditions to serve 
fraternal areas in order to develop their economic relations and trade with 
foreign countries with regard to information and consultation services, 
establishment of various agencies, and so forth. 

Shanghai should be opened not only to foreign countries, but also to the 
hinterland. We welcome fraternal areas to open shops and run factories in 
Shanghai. We also welcome design and construction units from fraternal areas 
to submit bids and undertake construction projects based on contracts. 

Shanghai is preparing to open shops and run factories in fraternal areas. 

It is also planning to cooperate with fraternal areas to establish trans- 
regional and transdepartmental economic integrated bodies in the fields of 
production and circulation in order to help advance each other and help supply 
each other's needs. 

Question: Finally, we would like you to speak about the issue of talented per¬ 
sonnel . 

Answer: This is a very important issue. All work should be carried out by 
people. At present we are lacking various kinds of talented personnel. In¬ 
deed, it is a top priority task to give full play to the role of intellectu¬ 
als, rationally make use of the existing talented personnel, and speed up the 
training of talented personnel. 

In recent years we have done a lot to implement the policy toward intellectu¬ 
als and give play to the role of scientific and technical personnel. Leaders 
at various levels are attaching more and more Importance to the role of in¬ 
tellectuals in the four modernizations. However, the phenomenon that in¬ 
tellectuals and their work are not respected has still existed. Therefore, 
we should further implement the policy toward intellectuals and firmly estab¬ 
lish the idea that intellectuals are a component part of the working class. 

The common practice of truly respecting intellectuals should be established 
in the whole society in order to give play to the wisdom and talent of the 
intellectuals. In Shanghai, some existing talented personnel have not yet 
been rationally used. There are some obstructions to the rational flow of 
talented personnel. Therefore, we have devised methods to encourage talented 
personnel in the enterprises under ownership by the whole people to flow to the 
enterprises under collective ownership. We also encourage talented personnel 
in the urban districts to flow to the suburbs, and those in the big factories 
to flow to the smaller ones. We can follow the methods of loan, assignment 
of concurrent jobs, or job transfer in light of different local conditions. 

In so doing we will be able to solve the problem of uneven development with 
regard to the use of talented personnel in different units so that various 
kinds of talented personnel will be fully utilized. 

We should also give full play to the role of colleges and universities. Uni¬ 
versities and colleges should share the work of trianing talented personnel 
and experts in Information and consultative services by adopting the method of 
combining a short-term training course with a regular college course. By 


36 



making use of our relations with friendly cities in foreign countries, 
we may run training classes for personnel engaged in the work of economic 
relations with foreign countries and foreign affairs. In the meantime, we 
should constantly provide the existing specialized personnel of various 
kinds with new knowledge so that they will continuously enhance their level 
of vocational knowledge. 


CSO: 4006/604 


37 



ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT 


CONGRESS DEPUTIES DISCUSS LIU ZHENG REPORT 

HKZ302i/ Changsha Hunan Provincial Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT ZZ Jun b4 

LTextJ Since yesterday the deputies attending the second session of the 
Sixth Provincial People^s Congress have been holding group discussions on 
Governor Liu Zheng's government work report. They are full of confidence 
for speeding up the pace of reform and vigorously developing Hunan's economy. 

During their discussions, the iriembers of the Lingling Prefecture delegation 
said: Governor Liu Zheng's report seeks truth from facts and is fair and 
reasonable, it acknowledges the province's economic backwardness and also 
analyses the reasons for it and proposed 10 reform measures. This is the 
starting point for vigorously developing Hunan's economy. 

Compared with Guangdong Province, Lingling Prefecture is still very poor. 

In the past the upper-level leadership did not acknowledge that the province's 
economy was backward, while we were content with making some contributions 
and some progress, albeit small, each year. Now the backwardness is acknow¬ 
ledged, and measures for changing this situation have been proposed. We thus 
have great resolve to eliminate poverty. 

During the discussions, the deputies ail held: In order to speed up the pace 
of reform, it is essential to eliminate the pernicious Influence of leftism. 
Deputies from Hengyang City said: Due to profound leftist Influence, some 
people seek stability and are afraid of chaos and are content with being lazy. 
They are not enthusiastic over reforms. Some are afraid of making mistakes 
in carrying out reforms and losing their official posts. They are everywhere 
accustomed to having everyone eat out of one big pot, and are unable to break 
the iron ricebowl. In a word, we must continue to eliminate leftism to score 
further progress in reforms. 

The deputies said: We must boldly carry out reforms and enliven the economy. 
We certainly cannot close the country to International intercourse. Deputies 
from the Xia ngx i Tujia-Miao Autonomous Prefecture said: Xlangxi has scored 
bumper crops of tong oil in recent years. Output last year exceeded 1ZO,000 
dan. However, in recent years the higher authorities have forbidden tong 
oil to be shipped out and have insisted on state monopoly procurement. As a 
result there is a great stockpile, and the peasants' enthusiasm for production 


38 


suffers. How can we enliven the economy unless this practice of tying 
ourselves up and restricting our activities to a designated sphere is 
changed? 

Deputies from Changsha City also cited Instances of being haunted by the 
idea of closing the country to international intercourse, with the result 
that attempts to attract foreign investment have been abortive. Deputies 
CQi Zhengylng), CZheng Ping), and others also set out constructive proposals 
regarding the question of opening up to the world. They also put forward 
candid criticisms and views. 


CSO; 4006/604 


39 




ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT 


BRIEFS 

HEFEI ECONOMIC, CULTURAL COMPANY—Hefei, 23 Jun CXINHUA)—An economic and 
cultural development company, set up by the Chinese University of Science 
and Technology in association with other institutions, has opened in Hefei, 
capital of Anhui Province. The Dongfang company will provide enterprises, 
specialized households and self-employed people in the province with in¬ 
formation, advice and training in new methods as well as advanced technology 
and equipment for a variety of industries including microcomputers. The com¬ 
pany has an information center, four branch offices and four service depart¬ 
ments in enterprise up-grading, technology development, production management 
and scientific research. Local officials, specialists and professors are 
invited as advisors to the company which is served by some 10,000 teacher and 
student volunteers from various specialities in off hours or on holidays. 

Part of the income from the projects they work on will be used to pay for 
their services. [Text] [OW230810 Beijing XINHUA in English 0639 GMT 23 Jun 
84] 


CSO: 4020/146 


40 


INDUSTRY 


BRIEFS 

QUANGDONG MAY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION-—Guangdong Province's gross industrial 
output value for May 1984 was 17.8 percent more than May of last year. Of 
the 63 main products, output of 50 products this May was more than last May. 
Output of refrigerators, television sets, cameras, beer, canned food, and 
chemical fibers in May increased by 100 percent. ISummaryJ 1HK250721 
Guangzhou Guangdong Provincial Service in Mandarin 0400 GMT 12 Jun 84J 

GUIZHOU MAY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION-—Zuizhou Province’s gross industrial out¬ 
put value for May was 9.4 percent more than for April, and 2as 22.8 percent 
more than last May. The amount of profit made by the industrial enterprises 
Inside the budget in May reached some 24 million yuan, which was some 3 mil¬ 
lion yuan more than in April. The quotas for the production of some 400 kinds 
of main products, including cigarettes, maotai, radios, television sets, 
steel, pig iron, metal products, chemical fertilizers, caustic soda, mining 
equipment, and boilers used in industry, were better fulfilled. In the past, 
the province could not produce plate glass. Since the beginning of this year, 
output of plate glass has gradually Increased month by month. Output of plate 
glass in May was 18,200 cases. [SummaryJ 1HK250725 Guiyang Guizhou Provin¬ 

cial Service in Mandarin 2300 GMT 9 Jun 84J 


CSO: 4006/604 


41 



CONSTRUCTION 


BRIEFS 

YINGKOU.HARBOR, LIAONING—Shenyang, 25 Jun (XINHUA)—The central government 
will invest 83 million yuan (about 37.73 million U.S. dollars) this year in 
the construction of the new harbor zone in Yingkou, Liaoning Province, as 
part of the nation's efforts to boost shipping service. The figure is treble 
the investment for 1983. The first phase of construction in the Fayuquan 
zone will include eight berths, six of which will be able to accommodate 
10,000-ton ships, according to the provincial transport department. Two 
coal berths for 10,000-ton vessels are to go into operation in 1986 to 
handle five million tons a year. When completed by 1990, the berths will 
be able to handle 6.9 million tons of both iii5>ort and export goods annually, 
mainly coal, non-metallic ore and sundry goods. Construction of the new zone, 
70 kilometers from the old one, began in 1982, The old zone now has seven 
berths capable of handling 950,000 tons of cargo annually. China has mde 
plans to build more than 160 deepwater berths of the 10,000-ton class in 
the 80's and 54 are scheduled for the Sixth 5-Year Plan period between 1981 
and 1985. (Text] I0W250847 Beijing XINHUA in English 0631 GMT 25 Jun 84] 


CSO; 4020/146 


42 



DOMESTIC TRADE 


BRIEFS 

GUANGZHOU INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS EXHIBITION—An exhibition of Guangzhou's indus¬ 
trial products opened ceremoniously at the Wuhan Exhibition Hall today. This 
is the first large-scale exhibition of industrial products by a fraternal 
city since Wuhan conducted its comprehensive reform of the economic system. 
Various trades and professions from Guangzhou, such as the first light in¬ 
dustry system, the second light industry system, textiles, machinery, elec¬ 
trical appliances, chemical industry, medicines, and electronics, as well as 
combined enterprise integrating agriculture, industry, and commerce, are 
participating in the exhibition. There are more than 30 categories of 
products in the exhibition, covering more than 35,000 kinds of commodities 
in various designs, sizes, and colors. Of this, 576 products have won , 

quality awards from the state, the relevant departments, and the provincial 
authorities. The exhibition reflects the new development attained by various 
trades and professions and the new level reached by various industrial 
products since the implementation of Guangzhou of special policies, flexible 
measures, and the policy of opening to the outside world and invigorating the 
domestic economy after the 3d Plenary Session of the lith CPC Central Com¬ 
mittee. Leading comrades of Hubei Province, Wuhan City, and the Wuhan PLA 
units, including Wang Quanguo, Wang Qun, Tlan Ying, and Li Guangjun, attended 
the opening ceremony of the exhibition today. The exhibition is scheduled to 
last 15 days. [Excerpts] [HK160340 Wuhan Hubei Provincial Service in 
Mandarin 1100 GMT 14 Jun 84] 


CSO: 4006/604 


43 




FOREIGN TRADE AND INVESTMENT 


BRIEFS 

INTERNATIONAL MACHINERY EXHIBITION OPENS—Zhengzhou, 18 Jun (XINHUA)—An 
international machinery exhibition opened today in Zhengzhou, capital of 
Henan Province. On display are computers, equipment and machinery for a 
variety of industries including electronics, textiles, foodstuffs, leather, 
plastics, petrochemicals, light industry and coal mining. The 5-day exhibi¬ 
tion drew over 60 business firms from 13 countries and regions, including 
Britain, France, Japan, the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany 
as well as Hong Kong. Seminars have been arranged on subjects ranging from 
computerized information communications to jet looms. The exhibition is 
sponsored jointly by the China Council for the Promotion of International 
Trade and Hong Kong Commedia Associates Ltd. [Text] [OW181220 Beijing 
JfINHUA in English 1112 GMT 18 Jun 84] 


CSO: 4020/146 


44 


TRANSPORTATION 


WORK TO BEGIN ON SECTION OF BEIJING-HANGZHOU CANAL 
Nanjing XINHUA RIBAO in Chinese 14 Mar 84 p 1 

[Article by Cai Mingde [5591 2494 1795]: "Extended Construction Work Will 
Soon Begin on the Xuzhou-Yangzhou Section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal"] 

[Text] Extended construction work on the Xuzhou-Yangzhou section of the 
Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, officially listed as a key construction project for 
the development of energy and communication at the National Planning Conference 
held toward the end of last year, will soon begin. Upon the basic 
completion of this section, the canal will serve to increase considerably 
the flow of traffic and the supply of water and to promote the economic pros¬ 
perity and cultural exchange in the regions north of the Huanghe and south 
of the Changjiang and the entire East China area. 

The strategic decision to continue construction work oh the Xuzhou-Yangzhou 
section of' the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was made to ensure the quadrupling of 
the total industrial and agricultural production value before the end of the 
century. Upon its basic completion, this section of the canal will be 
navigable for 1,000-ton barges all year round and will become a major artety 
for modernized communication and transportation. It will increase the annual 
amount of coal transported from north to south by 10 million tonsj speed up the 
economic development of the province and even the entire East China area, 
increase the amount of water diverted to the north, add to the water resouices 
in the region north of the Huaihe, facilitate the making of reliable plahs 
for paddy rice planting in the region, promote the development of cities 
and towns along the banks of the rivers, increase opportunities for emplo^ent, 
add to the income of the people, strengthen the dykes along the river banka 
and facilitate the prevention of floods and the work of drainage. The overall 
benefits of the project are obvious. 

The extended construction project of the Xuzhou-Yangzhou section of the 
canal extends 404 km. Designed according to Class 2 standards, this section 
of the canal, which is between 6C and 70 meters in width at the bottom and 
4 meters in minimum depth, calls for 31 separate pieces of construction work. 
They include four channel construction projects involving the removal of 
medium-height embankments in the Huai’an-Jieshou section of the Youli Canal, 
the widening of the section between Gaoyou and Lincheng, the dredging of those 
sections of the canal that are considered hazardous, the extending and 


45 





dredging of the Sayang-Yangzhuang section of the canal and the extending and 
dredging of the section between Dawangmiao and Xutang, the nine lock 
structures at Zaohe, Suqian, Liulaojian, Sayahg, Huaiyin, Huai'an, Shaobo 
and Shiqiao, three port construction projects involving the extension and 
reconstruction of Peixian Portj the extension and completion of Shuanglou 
Port, the extended construction of Wanzhai Port, the new construction of 
three highway bridges at Huaiyin, Huai'an and Baoying, the new construction 
and extension of eight pumping stations at Huaiyin, Sayang, Liulaojian, 

Jingertou and Yanghetan, the extended construction of two shipyards at Yangzhou 
and Huaiyin, the new construction of a wire communication line measuring 
407 km in length, the completion of an ultra-high-frequency radiotelephone 
line and the completion of a communication network along the Beijlng-Hangzhou 
Canal. The total investment in the construction projects is tentatively 
set at over 510 million yuan. 

In order to lighten the load placed on the Xuzhou-Pukou section of the 
Beijing-Shanghai Railway and to facilitate the transportation of coal frpm 
north to south, part of the separate construction projects approved ahead of 
time by the State Planning Commission was begun in 1982. The removal of 
medium—height embankments between the fields and the dredging of the hazardous 
waterways in the Huai'an—Jieshou section of the Li Canal have been completed 
and put into opetation. 

It is learned that at the conference on construction work to be done on the 
Beljing-Hangzhou Canal called by the province from March 9 to 11, those 
engaged in the project were asked to d6<iicate themselves to the extended 
construction work in the Xuzhou—Yangzhou section of the canal so that it may be 
completed satisfactorily by 1987. 

Those attending the conference included the responsible cadres in the 
concerned departments and bureaus of the province, the counties along the 
route of the canal under the jurisdiction of the three cities of Xuzhou, 

Huaiyin and Yangzhou and the technicians engaged in the project responsible 
for surveying planning and construction. In support of the canal construction 
project, the city of Yancheng also sent representatives to the conference. 

The conference was chaired by Ling Qihung [0407 0796 7703], deputy governor of 
the province. Jin Xun [6855 6676], member of the standing committee of the 
provincial party committee and deputy governor of the province, was among 
those who spoke at the conference. Chen Ketian [7115 0344 1131], director 
of the command headquarters for the extended construction work of the 
province, was responsible for planning. The,conference was also attended by 
the responsible cadres from the concerned departments of the State Planning 
Commission and the Ministry of Communications. 

The decision was made at the conference that the 31 separate constiruction 
projects along the Xuzhou-Yangzhou section should be performed according to 
plan and the proper procedure, that priority should be given to construction 
work at Kabozl, that a reasonable time limit for the construction work should 
be set, that the pace of work should be speeded up and that the transportation 
capacity of the canal should be increased within the shortest period of time 
in order to meet the requirements for the development of production. Thus, upon 


46 



the completion of the work of removing the medium-height embankments between 
the fields and the dredging of hazardous waterways along the Li Canal, the , 
first step to take is to direct major effort to the construction of locks 
and pumping stations at Huai'an and Suqian. While attention is being paid 
to this work, the second step to take is to spend 1 year in planning, 2 years 
in construction and 1 year in winding up the major engineering work in the 
extended construction projects between 1984 and 1987. The concerned 
departments, bureaus, cities and counties are to be responsible for the 
construction work for each and every separate project. 

In order to complete theextended construction projects in a creditable manner, 
at a high rate of speed, at low cost and with a high degree of effectiveness, 
the conference pointed out the need to strengthen organized leadership. To 
readjust and reinforce the command headquarters in the province, the decision 
was made to change the extended canal construction administrative offices in 
Xuzhou, Huaiyin and Yangzhou into command headquarters which are to assume 
unified responsibility for canal construction work within their jurisdictions 
under the leadership of the city party committees and the city governments. 

In order to implement the reform policy, the decision was also made to adopt the 
political and economic responsibility system whereby contract obligations are 
to be assumed at the various levels. That is to say, the extended construcion 
work is to be treated as a political mission with political responsibilities. 

At the same time, the economic responsibility system is to be adopted for the 
making of investments under contracts for the construction work. The construc¬ 
tion departmehts are to be responsible for contract obligations to the city 
command headquarters, the city command headquarters is to be responsible 
for contract obligations to the provincial command headquarters and the 
provincial government is to make the provincial command headquarters 
responsible for specific contract obligations to the Ministry of Communica¬ 
tions. All those units which have assumed responsibility for planning and 
construction or which have accepted bids must sign contracts with the cities 
concerned and assume political and economic responsibility for the fulfillment 
of contract terms. The responsibilities, powers and profits of each specific 
unit and of each individual responsible for each planning and construction 
project rnhst be clearly stated according to the relevant stipulations made by 
the state. Upon their completion, each phase in the work of planning and 
construction, each separate item of construction and the entire construction 
project must be carefully checked before approval is given. So that each 
and every item of construction may be done to perfection, those engaged in the 
construction work are to be rewarded for their diligence and meritorious 
service arid penalized for their indolence and remissness. 


47 




SKETCH MAP OF EXTENDED CONSTRUCTION WORK IN XUZHOU-YANGZHOU SECTION OF 
BEIJING-HANGZHOU CANAL 


1. Wanzhai Port 

2. Jietai Pumping Station 

3. Minbianhe Pumping Station 

4. Liulaojian Lock 

5. Siyang Pumping Station 

6. Huaiyin Shipyard 
[Continued on following page] 


48 






7. Huaiyin Pumping Station 

8. Li Canal Medixim Embankment Removal 

9. Gaoyou Canal West Lock 

10. Shaobo Lock 

11. Dredging of Insecure Section of Canal 

12. Shuanglou Port 

13. Liushan Pimping Station 

14. Qixian Port 

15. Zaohe Lock 

16. Yanghetan Pumping Station , 

17. Silqian Lock 

18. Jingertou Pumping Station 

19. Liulaojian Puniping Station • 

20. Dredging of Siyang-Huaiyin Section 

21. Siyang Lock 

22. Huaiyin Lock 

23. Huaiyin Bridge 

24. Huaian Bridge 

25. Huaian Lock 

26. Baoying Bridge 

27. Gaoyou Canal East Lock 

28. Jiangyang Shipyard 

29. Shiqiao Lock 

30. Xuzhou ; " " 

31. Luoma Lake 

32. Qize Lake 

33. Xinyi River i 

34. North Jiangsu Irrigation Main Channel 

35. Huaihe 

36. Baoying Lake 

37. Gaoyou Lake 

38. Gaoyou 

39. Shiqiao 

40. Yangzhou , 


Key: 


a. 

^ Beijing-Hangzhou Canal 

e. 

O Pumping Stations 

b. 

■— Rivers 

f. 

}=< Bridges 

c. 

o Original Locks 

g. 

a Ports 

d. 

Newly Constructed Locks 

h. 

A Ship 3 '-ards 


9621 

CSO: 4006/457 


49 



TRANSPORTATION 



CHINA'S SHIPPING, CONTAINER TRANSPORT MAKE RAPID GAINS 

Port Activity 

Beijing JINGJI RIBAO in Chinese 20 Feb 84 p 2 

[Article by Staff Reporter Wang Ruochu [3769 5387 4554]: "China's Marine 
Transportation Industry Enters Period of Prosperity and Development"] 

[Text] Our nation's shipping industry has been developing by leaps and 
bounds since the establishment of the Republic. Along our extensive 
coastline, there are now over 700 ports of various types. Our considerable 
oceangoing fleet sails to over 400 ports in more than 100 countries and 
regions throughout the world. Our shipping industry has assumed an 
increasingly important role in the economic development of our nation. 

According to statistics supplied by the concerned department, as many as 
76,000 vessels, of which 19,000 were foreign bottoms, called at the various 
ports in our nation in 1983. The volume of freight handled by the ports, 
which has been increasing year by year, has now exceeded 300 million tons 
annually, or 15 times the volume for 1952. 

To keep pace with the continuing development of our economy and the rapid 
increase in the volume of our foreign trade, we have opened to foreign 
shipping 24 coastal ports, including Shanghai, Tianjin, Huangpu, Dalian and 
Qinhuangdao, concluded ocean transportation agreements with 32 countries, 
signed 16 contracts with foreign companies for the prospecting and 
development of offshore oil and given our approval for the vessels of 85 
foreign countries to use our ports. According to statistics for 1983 
supplied by 15 major ports, the number of ships of various types piloted 
into and the number of foreign seamen who called at the various ports came 
to 33,000 vessels/times and 1.25 million persons/times respectively, thus 
indicating that our shipping industry is gradually entering a period of 
prosperity. 


Containerized Freight 

Beijing JINGJI RIBAO in Chinese 20 Feb 84 p 2 

[Article by Tang Jie [0781 2638]: "China's Containerized Transportation Is 
Developing at a Rapid Pace"] 


50 



[Text] During 1984, China will open three new international containerized 
traffic lanes, thus increasing the number of lanes for regularly scheduled 
international oceangoing containerized traffic from 14 to 17 as well as 
three domestic containerized traffic lanes, thus increasing the number of 
domestic traffic lanes from 12 to 15. 

Containerized transportation is a modernized form of transportation which 
has great advantages. While it takes 3 to 4 days to load or unload a 
10,000-ton vessel in bulk and only 12 hours to do the job on a containerized 
vessel, the same job can be done in only 5 hours on a Ro-Ro vessel onto which 
trucks can be directly driven. The rate of berthing utilization and 
passage capacity of a container vessel is equivalent to 5 to lO times that 
required by vessels loaded in bulk. It was not until 1973 that our coastal 
ports began to adopt containerized transportation. Despite the late start, 
we have made rapid progress. In 1983, freight carried by our container 
ships came to 120,000 standard crates weighing over 1.2 million tons. The 
volume of freight handled by our coastal ports came to over 220,000 crates 
weighing over 1.5 million tons. During the past year, an additional four 
berthing spaces specifically designed for use by container ships have been 
put into operation, thus increasing the number of berths for container 
ships to seven, the length of piers along the coast to 1,700 meters and the 
volume of containerized freight to 380,000 standard crates. Be that as it 
may, our containerized freight transportation is still beset with problems. 
One major problem is that, although the volume of freight suitable for 
containerized transportation is large, our capacity is rather limited. 
According to statistics supplied by five major ports such as Shanghai, 
although over half of the 10 million tons of export freight is considered 
suitable for containerized shipping, only 10,000 tons is actually shipped 
by containers. The result is that berthing spaces exclusively reserved 
for container shipping have not been fully utilized. Although the newly 
constructed pier for container ships at the port of Huangpu is designed to 
handle 500,000 crates, it is in actual fact not handling even one-tenth 
of that volume. The Ministry of Communications has decided to strengthen, 
during the course of the year, the work of building container ships, to 
establish and to perfect the container transportation administration system 
and to organize training classes for professional personnel with a view to 
upgrading the administrative standard and to developing at a more rapid 1v 
pace containerized transportation. 


51 





9621 

CSO: 4006/457 

















TRANSPORTATION 


BRIEFS 

TIANJIN TOURIST AIR LINE^-The Tianjin Civil Aviation Bureau has decided to 
open a nonstop tourist flight between Tianjin and Shanxi Province's Xian 
City beginning 18 July. At present, the bureau is accelerating prepar¬ 
ations for the opening of this flight. After the opening of this flight, 
there will be one flight every Wednesday on a provisional basis. [Summary] 
[Tianjin City Service in Mandarin 1430 GMT 25 Jun 84 SK] 

SANYA-HONG KONG SEA LINER—The service of the passenger and freight sea liner, 
"Malan," between Sanya, south of Hainan Island, and Hong Kong, has been 
scheduled to commence this 8 July. The opening of this shipping line will 
play an important part in speeding up the development and building of Hainan 
Island, facilitating passenger and freight transport between Hainan and Hong 
Kong, and developing tourism in Hainan. "Malan" was built by the Guangzhou 
shipyard at the beginning of this year. "Malan" is a modern, 5,000-ton pas¬ 
senger and freight vessel. Its total length is 107 meters. It has 63 cabins, 
can accommodate 600 passengers, and can carry 275 tons of freight. It is 
capable of traveling 16 nautical miles per hour. The total distance from 
Hong Kong to Sanya is 426 nautical miles. It will take only 27 hours to 
complete the voyage. "Malan" will leave Hong Kong for Sanya at 1500 hours on 
the 9th and 29th of each month, and return to Hong Kong from Sanya at 1700 
hours on the 4th and 14th of each month. [Text] [Haikou Hainan Island Ser¬ 
vice in Mandarin 0330 GMT 2 Jun 84 HK] 

ZHEJIANG RAILWAY—A 146 km-long railway line from Xlaoshan to Ningbo in 
Zhejiang Province was completed early this month. The railway line, which 
is capable of handling heavy duty locomotives with a pulling capacity of 
3,500 tons, will open to traffic 1 July. The line will play an important 
role in increasing the railway transport capacity between Shanghai, Hangzhou 
and Ningbo. [Summary] [Shanghai City Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 9 Jun 84 
OW] 

SANYA FORT OPENS 2 JULY'^'-With the approval of the Guangdong Provincial 
People's Government, Sanya Port will be open to foreign vessels at the same 
time as the service of the Sanya-Hong Kong passenger and freight sea liner 
commences on 2 July. With a view toward speeding up the development and 
building of our region, the State Council approved the opening of Sanya Port 
to the outside world in October last year. Over the past 6 months and more, 
in: coordination with each other, all departments concerned of the Hainan 


53 



Region and the Hainan Li-Miao Autonomous Prefecture have done all apsects 
of preparatory work seriously and well. After examination and acceptance, 
the State Council and relevant provincial departments in charge recently 
held that Sanya has basically fulfilled the conditions for opening to foreign 
vessels and for the shipping service with Hong Kong. [Text] [HK221032 
Haikou Hainan Island Service in Mandarin 0330 GMT 22 Jun 84] 


SHIPS AT XIAMEN HARBOR—Beijing, 22 Jun (XINHUA)—Regular cargo and passenger 
ships between Guangzhou and Shanghai will call at Xiamen Harbor in Fujian 
Province, beginning 1 July, the Ministry of Communications announced here to¬ 
day. On the new Guangzhou-Xiamen-Shanghai route, ships from Guangzhou, the 
capital of Guangdong Province, will reach Xiamen every Sunday, while ships 
from Shanghai will call at Xiamen every Monday. According to the ministry, 
ships will take on both passengers and cargo at Xiamen. A ministry spokes¬ 
man said that designating Xiamen a port of call on China's north-south 
coastal shipping route is not only for the convenience of both Chinese and 
foreign passengers but also to help the development of the Xiamen special 
economic zone. The regular passenger ship service between Guangzhou and 
Shanghai began in November last year. [Text] [0W221318 Beijing XINHUA in 
English 1258 GMT 22 Jun 84] 

BEIJING-QINHUANGDAO RAILWAY—Beijing, 26 Jun (XINHUA)—A new double-track, 
electric railway from Beijing to the port city of Qinhuangdao has gone into 
trial operation, according to the Ministry of Railways. The 281-kilometer 
railway will be linked with the Datong-Beijing Railway to move coal out of 
Shanxi Province, China's leading coal producer, to Qinhuangdao in Hebei Pro¬ 
vince. It is designed to carry 60 million tons of coal annually from Shanxi 
for export or domestic use. Track-laying for the new railway began on 
1 March 1982 and was completed last December. Trial runs began on Saturday. 
[Text] [OW270347 Beijing XINHUA in English 0756 GMT 26 Jun 84] 


CSO: 


4020/146 


END